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SP1 Lecture 5: 9/2/11:

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- Static and instance variables
- Class Math
- Random
- Loan calculator

- Local variables
- Array (if time permits)

Static variable:belongs to its class, and it is shared by all class instances, with the same value

Instance variable:a class variable without the “static” modifier, is shared by all class instances, but its values can differ in different instances

Local variable: is created within a method or instance in a { } block. Its scope is limited within the block.

public class TesNum {

int instVar = 1;

static int statVar = 10;

TesNum() {

System.out.println("test: " + instVar + " and " + statVar);

instVar = 7; statVar = 5;

} \\ constructor

public static void main(String[] args) {

TesNum alpha1 = new TesNum();

alpha1.instVar = 3;

alpha1.statVar = 6; //syn. to: TesNum.statVar = 6;

TesNum alpha2 = new TesNum();

System.out.println("inst: " + alpha1.instVar + " and " + alpha2.instVar);

System.out.println("stat: " + alpha1.statVar + " and " + alpha2.statVar);

//System.out.print("mix: " + instVar + " and " + statVar); wrong

}//end of main

}//end of class

instVar statVar

1. With the class:

1 (in class) 10

2. At the constructor in class (virtual): 75

3. After alpha1:Constructor prints:1 and 10

3 (within alpha1)6

4. After alpha2:Constructorprints:1 and6

7 (within alpha2)5

5. Method main prints:3 and 7

5 and 5

public int SS(int a){

int b=instVar;

int sum=0;

if (a>b){ //swap a and b

int c=b; b=a; a=c;}

for(int i=a;i<=b;i++)

sum=sum+i;

return sum;

}// computes the sum of integers from a to b

int b1=alpha1.SS(statVar);

int b2=alpha2.SS(statVar);

System.out.println("sum : " + b1 + " and " + b2);

From alpha1: a=5, b=3

The sum: 3+4+5=12, that is, b1=12

From alpha2: a=5, b=7

The sum: 5+6+7=18, that is, b2=18

The print:

sum: 12 and 18

Examples from TesNum

alpha1.statVar

alpha2.instVar

TesNum.statVar

from TesNMod

alpha1.SS(statVar)

Math.pi =3.14…,the ratio of the

circumference to its diameter

Math.abs(a) a if a >= 0, or -a if a < 0

Math.log(a) the natural logarithm

(base e) of number a

Math.sqrt(a) square root of number a

Math.pow(a,b)ab ; if b is an integer then

ab =aa…a (b times)

- Deposit:
- You put £1000 with annual interest rate 5%
- Q: How much money it will be in 10 years?
- A: Run Java loop:
- int A=1000;
- for (int k=1;k<=10;k++)
- A=A*1.05;
- System.out.println(“In 10 years the value is ”+A);

- Loan
- You take £1000 with annual interest rate 5% for 10 years.
- Q: How much money to pay monthly?

- Loan
- You take £1000 with annual interest rate 5% for 10 years.
- Q: How much money to pay monthly?
- No simple arithmetic answer; powers needed

- Java computation
- double a=1000.0; double air=0.05;
- int period=10;
- double mopay, totpay;
- double mir=air/12; int mp=period*12;//month unit
- mopay=(a*mir)/(1 – Math.pow(1/(1+mir),mp));
- totpay=mopay*mp;

- public class Loan{
- public static void main(String[] args) {
- Loan lo = new Loan();
- double mopay=lo.pay(10000, 0.05,10);
- double topay=mopay*12*10;
- System.out.println("Monthly payment is "+mopay);
- System.out.println("Total payment is "+topay);
- }
- double pay(double a, double air,int period){
- double mir=air/12; int mp=period*12;//month unit
- double mop=(a*mir)/(1 - Math.pow(1/(1+mir),mp));
- return mop;
- }
- }

Modify class loan in such a way that its constructor takes from the user some or all of the details needed to do the computation:

- Loan value
- Repayment period (in years)
- Rate

pseudorandom number: double within interval [0.0, 1.0) (zero included, unity not)

How to use it to generate a random integer between 1 and 6 (inclusive), to imitate casting a dice?

double aa=Math.random();

//aa, a real number between 0 and 1

int an= 6*aa;//a real number between 0 and 6

int rand=(int) an;

// whole number between 0 and 5

int randw=rand+1;

// whole number between 1 and 6

The same in one line:

int randw= (int) (6*Math.random()+1);

How to generate a random integer between 10 and 20 inclusive?

Answer:

int rdt= (int) (11*Math.random()+10);

Another possibility: using class Random

with

import java.util.Random

Local variable:

is created within a method or instance in a { } (curly brace) block.

Its scope is limited within the block.

Therefore, same name can be used in different blocks for different variables.

public class Prog03{ private static int i=3;

public static void method1(){

int i=2; i+=6;

System.out.println(i); }

public static int method2(int a){

a=a+3; int i=2*a-6;

return i; }

public static void method3(int i){

System.out.println(i+1);

i=i+2;

System.out.println(method2(i)); }

public static void main(String[] args){

System.out.println(i);

System.out.println(i+1);

method1();

i = method2(i);

System.out.println(i);

method3(i+1);

}

} //end of class

Working from main method:

PrintWhy

3 First line executed, static i=3

4Second line executed, static i=3

8Third line executed, method1 at which i=8

6Fifth line executed with i=method2(3), that is, i=6

8Sixth line executed, method3(9),two printings

18

Array is an indexed list of elements of the same type; the index is supplied by default (!)

A string array nam[ ]: contains both entries and index.

String nam[] ={“John”,“Paul”,“George”,“Ringo”};Index: 0 1 2 3

Length (the number of entries) is 4

An integer array age[ ]: int age[ ]= {23, 32, 19, 30, 25, 25, 23, 30};Index: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Length is 8

Not an array: abc[ ]={8, Ringo, +} -WHY?

(different types)

[ ] - on the array name's right is used to indicate arrays

2. Declaring arrays

Both,

int ages[ ];

and

int[ ] ages;

is OK

Initialisation of an array: either

ages = new int[8]; // array with 8 zeros

or

ages[ ] = {23, 32, 19, 30, 25, 25, 23, 30};

//specify what is needed

Simultaneously declaring & initialising (with zeros)

int ages[] = new int[8];

ages[ ] = {23, 32, 19, 30, 25, 25, 23, 30};

Accessing array elements

ages [1] is 32

int i=4;

int j = ages [i]; // assigning j with 25

Data of 5 students:

double height[ ]={1.56, 1.72, 1.80, 1.85, 1.90}; //in m

double weight[ ]={65.3,80.0,78.1,76.5,112.8}; // in kg

Problem: compute the body mass index for all the students, bmi=weight/height2

(in the US, those with bmi between 20 and 25 are considered of normal weight)

Loop for is natural with arrays: the index used as the counter

bmi[ ]=new double[5];

for (int I = 0; I < 5; I + +)

bmi[I]=weight[I] / (height[I]height[I]);

If length of student arrays is not known or is variable, put array’s length whatever it is:

bmi[ ]=new double[height.length];

for (int I = 0; I < height.length; I + +)

bmi[I]=weight[I] / (height[I]height[I]);

The same result with a method for the bmi:

double[ ] bmiindex(double h[ ], double w[ ]){

double in[ ];

for (int ii = 0; ii < h.length; ii = ii+1)

in[ii]=h[ii]/(w[ii]w[ii]);

return in; }

Method bmiindex is just a frame box; to make it work, one needs to put within a class this:

double[ ] bmi=bmiindex(weight, height);