Politics of social policy in Korea. Why is inequality becoming a bigger concern? What effects did the democratization and the financial crisis have on social policy in Korea? Is welfare politics becoming salient? What’s the prospects of welfare politics?
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David Soskice: liberal vs. coordinated market economies
Gøsta Esping-Andersen: liberal, social democratic, conservative welfare states
Mkt Gini Disposable Redistribution
Nordic SMEs 35.2 23.6 32.9%
Continental SMEs 34.8 25.6 25.7%
LMEs 41.8 32.4 22.6%
(US) (43.6) (36.3) (16.7%)
Means-testing (whether and how much to support): suspicion and arbitrariness, cheating and corruption, costly administration undermines public support
Means-tested (targeted) assistance is not more redistributive. Why?
- Universal or selective welfare programs?
*Public pension system: Government employees(1960), military personnel(1963), private school teachers(1975)
- Not because of social policy
- Land reform, Korean War
- Labor-intensive industrialization with full employment
*Partial privatization not adopted
- Minimum Living Standard Guarantee Act (2000)
10 thousand dollars/capita
Kim, Young-soon: Institutions of interest representation:
Policy making by the bureaucracy, with civil society input
Single-term presidency, regionalism, lack of class cleavage, anti-communism & narrow ideological spectrum, ideological politics developed surrounding North Korea policy
-Tripartite Agreement (2/6/98)
-KCTU’s withdrawal & company unionism: Low coordination & centralization