Our Universe. Universe Objectives ( 8.8) Science concepts. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to: (8.8A) describe components of the universe including stars, nebulae, and galaxies.
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(8.8) Science concepts. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:
(8.8A) describe components of the universe including stars, nebulae, and galaxies.
(8.8B) Recognize that the Sun is a medium sized star near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of stars and that the sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star.
(8.13C) Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to gain information about distances and properties of components in the universe.
(8.8D) Model and describe how light years are used to measure distances and sizes in the universe.
a set of lenses (curved glass) gather and focus light.
The light bends as it passes through a curved objective lens.
Mirrors gather and focus light to magnify image.
Astronomers use this type since they are larger and gather more light.
What type of electromagnetic wave do these telescopes gather?
Because radio waves are so big!
Why are these Radio telescopes so large?
McDonald Observatory is located in the Davis Mountains, 450 miles west of Austin, Texas.
There is a log of light pollution around cities
Why are telescopes usually far from cities?
Why is this telescope more powerful than the radio or visible telescope?
X-rays have a higher frequency (more energy)
Where is the hubble space telescope?
Orbiting the Earth outside of it’s atmosphere?
Clouds and air can not interfere with image.
Consists of all space and the matter space contains.
Astronomy is the study of all physical objects beyond Earth.
Large groups of stars
Astronomers estimate from the size and brightness of the galaxy how many sun-sized stars it might have.
At least 15.
How many stars are in each galaxy?
Millions. The bigger and brighter – the more stars.
There are three main types:
How many stars are in this picture?
MILLIONS! This is not our solar system.
This is millions of stars very close together.
If you rotated an elliptical shape, what would it look like from the end?
Billions and billions of stars!
Some planetary systems too!
Gas clouds or nebulas
dirty ice, dust, and gas balls with huge elliptical paths.
Comets range in their orbital Periods from orbiting every 3 years to orbiting just once in 10,000 years!
ring that surrounds spiral galaxies (such as the Milky Way) and giant elliptical galaxies.
This is how it looked 6 billion years ago
You are looking back in time 6 billion years!
Cosmology is the study of the origin, structure, and future of the universe.
To understand how the universe formed, scientists study the movement of galaxies.
Most galaxies are moving apart.
Which color do you see more of in this picture of the stars?
So what does the color of these stars tell us about their movement?
Doppler Effect -
Wavelength changes due to motion