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Chapter 8. Aquatic Biodiversity. Natural Capital: Major Life Zones and Vertical Zones in an Ocean. Fig. 6-1a, p. 126. Core Case Study: Why Should We Care About Coral Reefs?. Coral reefs form in clear, warm coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics. Formed by massive colonies of polyps.

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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Aquatic Biodiversity




Core case study why should we care about coral reefs
Core Case Study: OceanWhy Should We Care About Coral Reefs?

Coral reefs form in clear, warm coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics.

Formed by massive colonies of polyps.

Figure 8-1


Core case study why should we care about coral reefs1
Core Case Study: OceanWhy Should We Care About Coral Reefs?

Help moderate atmospheric temperature by removing CO2 from the atmosphere.

Act as natural barriers that help protect 14% of the world’s coastlines from erosion by battering waves and storms.

Provide habitats for a variety of marine organisms.



Estuaries and coastal wetlands centers of productivity
Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands: OceanCenters of Productivity

Estuaries provide ecological and economic services.

Filter toxic pollutants, excess plant nutrients, sediments, and other pollutants.

Reduce storm damage by absorbing waves and storing excess water produced by storms and tsunamis.

Provide food, habitats and nursery sites for many aquatic species.


y Ocean

Herring gulls

Peregrine falcon

Snowy

Egret

Cordgrass

Short-billed

Dowitcher

Marsh

Periwinkle

Phytoplankton

Smelt

Zooplankton and

small crustaceans

Soft-shelled

clam

Clamworm

Bacteria

All consumers

and producers

to decomposers

Producer to

primary

consumer

Primary to

secondary

consumer

Secondary to

higher-level

consumer

Fig. 8-7


Case study dams wetlands hurricanes and new orleans
Case Study: OceanDams, Wetlands, Hurricanes, and New Orleans

Dams and levees have been built to control water flows in New Orleans.

Reduction in natural flow has destroyed natural wetlands.

Causes city to lie below sea-level (up to 3 meters).

Global sea levels have risen almost 0.3 meters since 1900.


Mangrove forests
Mangrove Forests Ocean

Figure 6-8


What kinds of organisms live in aquatic life zones
What Kinds of Organisms Live in Aquatic Life Zones? Ocean

Aquatic systems contain floating, drifting, swimming, bottom-dwelling, and decomposer organisms.

Plankton: important group of weakly swimming, free-floating biota.

Phytoplankton (plant), Zooplankton (animal), Ultraplankton (photosynthetic bacteria)

Necton: fish, turtles, whales.

Benthos: bottom dwellers (barnacles, oysters).

Decomposers: breakdown organic compounds (mostly bacteria).


Rocky and sandy shores living with the tides
Rocky and Sandy Shores: OceanLiving with the Tides

Organisms in intertidal zone develop specialized niches to deal with daily changes in:

Wave action

Figure 8-9


Human activities are disrupting and degrading marine systems
Human Activities Are Disrupting and Degrading Marine Systems Ocean

Major threats to marine systems

Coastal development

Overfishing

Runoff of nonpoint source pollution

Point source pollution

Habitat destruction

Introduction of invasive species

Climate change from human activities

Pollution of coastal wetlands and estuaries


Freshwater life zones
Freshwater Life Zones Ocean

Sunlight

Painted

turtle

Green

frog

Blue-winged

teal

Muskrat

Pond

snail

Littoral zone

Limnetic zone

Diving

beetle

Plankton

Profundal zone

Benthic zone

Northern

pike

Bloodworms

Yellow

perch

Fig. 8-15




Effects of plant nutrients on lakes too much of a good thing
Effects of Plant Nutrients on Lakes: OceanToo Much of a Good Thing

Plant nutrients from a lake’s environment affect the types and numbers of organisms it can support.

Figure 8-16


River systems
River Systems Ocean

Lake

Glacier

Rapids

Waterfall

Tributary

Flood plain

Oxbow lake

Salt marsh

Ocean

Delta

Deposited

sediment

Transition Zone

Water

Flood-Plain Zone

Sediment

  • Runoff

  • Drainage basin

  • Watershed

  • Floodplain

Rain and snow

Source

area

Source Zone

Fig. 8-17


Rachel carson
Rachel Carson Ocean

All at last returns to the sea-to Oceanus, the ocean river, like the ever-flowing stream of time, the beginning and the end.

End chapter 8


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