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Chapter 8. Aquatic Biodiversity. Natural Capital: Major Life Zones and Vertical Zones in an Ocean. Fig. 6-1a, p. 126. Core Case Study: Why Should We Care About Coral Reefs?. Coral reefs form in clear, warm coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics. Formed by massive colonies of polyps.

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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Aquatic Biodiversity


Natural capital major life zones and vertical zones in an ocean

Natural Capital: Major Life Zones and Vertical Zones in an Ocean


Chapter 8

Fig. 6-1a, p. 126


Core case study why should we care about coral reefs

Core Case Study:Why Should We Care About Coral Reefs?

Coral reefs form in clear, warm coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics.

Formed by massive colonies of polyps.

Figure 8-1


Core case study why should we care about coral reefs1

Core Case Study:Why Should We Care About Coral Reefs?

Help moderate atmospheric temperature by removing CO2 from the atmosphere.

Act as natural barriers that help protect 14% of the world’s coastlines from erosion by battering waves and storms.

Provide habitats for a variety of marine organisms.


Chapter 8

Fig. 6-7b, p. 131


Estuaries and coastal wetlands centers of productivity

Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands: Centers of Productivity

Estuaries provide ecological and economic services.

Filter toxic pollutants, excess plant nutrients, sediments, and other pollutants.

Reduce storm damage by absorbing waves and storing excess water produced by storms and tsunamis.

Provide food, habitats and nursery sites for many aquatic species.


Chapter 8

y

Herring gulls

Peregrine falcon

Snowy

Egret

Cordgrass

Short-billed

Dowitcher

Marsh

Periwinkle

Phytoplankton

Smelt

Zooplankton and

small crustaceans

Soft-shelled

clam

Clamworm

Bacteria

All consumers

and producers

to decomposers

Producer to

primary

consumer

Primary to

secondary

consumer

Secondary to

higher-level

consumer

Fig. 8-7


Case study dams wetlands hurricanes and new orleans

Case Study:Dams, Wetlands, Hurricanes, and New Orleans

Dams and levees have been built to control water flows in New Orleans.

Reduction in natural flow has destroyed natural wetlands.

Causes city to lie below sea-level (up to 3 meters).

Global sea levels have risen almost 0.3 meters since 1900.


Mangrove forests

Mangrove Forests

Figure 6-8


What kinds of organisms live in aquatic life zones

What Kinds of Organisms Live in Aquatic Life Zones?

Aquatic systems contain floating, drifting, swimming, bottom-dwelling, and decomposer organisms.

Plankton: important group of weakly swimming, free-floating biota.

Phytoplankton (plant), Zooplankton (animal), Ultraplankton (photosynthetic bacteria)

Necton: fish, turtles, whales.

Benthos: bottom dwellers (barnacles, oysters).

Decomposers: breakdown organic compounds (mostly bacteria).


Rocky and sandy shores living with the tides

Rocky and Sandy Shores: Living with the Tides

Organisms in intertidal zone develop specialized niches to deal with daily changes in:

Wave action

Figure 8-9


Human activities are disrupting and degrading marine systems

Human Activities Are Disrupting and Degrading Marine Systems

Major threats to marine systems

Coastal development

Overfishing

Runoff of nonpoint source pollution

Point source pollution

Habitat destruction

Introduction of invasive species

Climate change from human activities

Pollution of coastal wetlands and estuaries


Freshwater life zones

Freshwater Life Zones

Sunlight

Painted

turtle

Green

frog

Blue-winged

teal

Muskrat

Pond

snail

Littoral zone

Limnetic zone

Diving

beetle

Plankton

Profundal zone

Benthic zone

Northern

pike

Bloodworms

Yellow

perch

Fig. 8-15


Types of lakes oligotrophic

Types of Lakes: Oligotrophic


Types of lakes eutrophic

Types of Lakes: Eutrophic


Effects of plant nutrients on lakes too much of a good thing

Effects of Plant Nutrients on Lakes:Too Much of a Good Thing

Plant nutrients from a lake’s environment affect the types and numbers of organisms it can support.

Figure 8-16


River systems

River Systems

Lake

Glacier

Rapids

Waterfall

Tributary

Flood plain

Oxbow lake

Salt marsh

Ocean

Delta

Deposited

sediment

Transition Zone

Water

Flood-Plain Zone

Sediment

  • Runoff

  • Drainage basin

  • Watershed

  • Floodplain

Rain and snow

Source

area

Source Zone

Fig. 8-17


Rachel carson

Rachel Carson

All at last returns to the sea-to Oceanus, the ocean river, like the ever-flowing stream of time, the beginning and the end.

End chapter 8


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