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Mixing Water and Energy at the US/Mexico Border ________________ Martin J. Pasqualetti Professor, School of Geographical Sciences & Urban Planning Senior Sustainability Scientist, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability Arizona State University. 1-3 June 2014.

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Mixing Water and Energy at the US/Mexico Border

________________

Martin J. Pasqualetti

Professor, School of Geographical Sciences & Urban Planning

Senior Sustainability Scientist, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability

Arizona State University

1-3 June 2014

background references
Background References
  • Scott Kelley and Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2013. Virtual Water from a Vanishing River. Journal – American Water Works Association. 105:9. September.
  • Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2012. Reading the Changing Energy Landscape. In Sustainable Energy Landscapes: Designing, Planning, and Development, Sven Stremke and Andy Van Den Dobbelsteen, eds. CRC Press, pp. 11-44.
  • Christopher Scott and Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2011. Energy and Water Resources Scarcity: Critical Infrastructure for Growth and Economic Development in Arizona and Sonora. Natural Resources Journal, 50 (3): 645-682.
  • Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2011. Social Barriers to Renewable Energy Landscapes. The Geographical Review , 101 (2).
  • Ron Pate and Martin J. Pasqualetti. Workshop on Climate Change and Energy, Water and Land Interactions November 7-8, 2011 Washington, DC
  • Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2001. Morality, Space, and the Power of Wind-Energy Landscapes, The Geographical Review, 90(3):381-394.
  • Martin J. Pasqualetti. 1980. Geothermal Energy and the Environment: The Global Experience, Energy: The International Journal, 5:111-165.
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Outline

Part One - The Energy/Water Nexus

Part Two - Imperial County Water

Part Three - Imperial County Renewables

Part Four - Imperial County Future

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Part One

The Energy/Water Nexus

humanity s top 10 problems for the next 50 years
Humanity’s Top 10 Problems for the Next 50 Years
  • Energy
  • Water
  • Food
  • Environment
  • Poverty
  • Terrorism and War
  • Disease
  • Education
  • Democracy
  • Population

Source: Nobel laureate, Richard Smalley

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Part Two

Imperial County Water

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Precipitation

Potential Evapotranspiration

Source: Jose M. Güereña, Surface Water Resources for Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Analysis of the Sonora River.

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Colorado River Basin

  • 7 states
  • 30 million people
  • 4 million acres irrigated
  • 4,200 MW hydropower
  • 15 Native American Tribes
  • 7 National Wildlife Refuges
  • 4 National Recreation Areas
  • 5 National Parks
crb demand up supply down
CRB Demand Up, Supply Down

Source: USBR, Doug Kenney

problem 1 evaporation and bank storage at crb hydroelectric reservoirs
Problem #1Evaporation and Bank Storage at CRB Hydroelectric Reservoirs

Lake Mead - 648,000 ac-ft/yr

Lake Powell - 553,000 ac-ft/yr

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Problem #2

Transfers of Virtual Water from Electrical Generation in the Colorado River Watershed330,000 Ac-Ft/yr (407 Mm3/yr); ~ 50% exported outside the CRB)

Source: Scott Kelley and Martin J. Pasqualetti. Virtual Water from a Vanishing River Journal – American Water Works Association. 105:9. September. 2013.

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The Imperial Valley gets 20% of all the water from the Colorado River – more than Nevada and Colorado combined. It uses 5.6 acre-feet of water per acre per year. Imperial County, with a population of 175,000, gets 3.1 million acre-feet of water a year.

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Source: Imperial County: Agricultural Crop and Livestock Report, 2012

http://www.co.imperial.ca.us/ag/Departments_A/agricultural_crop_&_livestock_reports.htm

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Part Three

Imperial County Renewables

three important renewable resources
Three Important Renewable Resources

Photo by: CLUI

Centinela Solar Energy Project

Photo by: John Gibbins U~T San Diego.

Ocotillo Wind Farm

Heber Geothermal Plant

imperial county wind geothermal and hydro installations
Imperial County Wind, Geothermal and Hydro Installations

geothermal

geothermal

geothermal

wind

geothermal

hydro

Source: Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/state/?sid=CA

imperial county solar projects
Imperial CountySolar Projects

Source: Center for Land Use Interpretation. http://www.clui.org/content/major-solar-power-plants-usa

rare and valuable synergies neutralize intermittency of wind and solar
Rare and Valuable Synergies Neutralize Intermittency of wind and solar

“THE BATTERY”

Geothermal is available 98% of the time and can be dispatched at the request of power grid operators @ 2-3MW/minute

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*2013 ^2011 ***2014 ^* @ 20% capacity factor

Sources: EIA Electricity Data Browser - http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/browser/

CLUI - http://www.clui.org/content/major-solar-power-plants-usa

operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies
Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies

Figure 1 from Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature. J Macknick et al 2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 045802 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/045802

displace agriculture with electricity
Displace Agriculture with Electricity*
  • $787 million/yr in value**
  • This is more than 40% of the value of the agriculture, but with little water required.
  • 1/3 less water = 1 million ac-ft

* Assuming little to no outside water used in generation.

** @ 13.5 cents/kWh average California price for electricity. Source: State Electricity Profiles (2012) - http://www.eia.gov/electricity/state/

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Part Four

Imperial County Futures

some people oppose re
Some People Oppose RE

Source: http://www.windwiseradio.org/tag/ocotillo/

while others encourage it
While Others Encourage It

Source: Loop-Net.com/geothermal-land/5/

sequence of acceptance of re
Sequence of Acceptance of RE

Based on research by Maarten Wolsink

Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2001. Morality, Space, and the Power of Wind-Energy Landscapes, The Geographical Review, 90(3):381-394.

motivations of ag re exchange
Motivations of AG > RE Exchange
  • Save water for other purposes
  • Decrease air emissions from conventional
  • Increase land values and tax revenues
  • Increase energy sustainability
  • Concentrate on high-value crops
barriers to ag re exchange
Barriers to AG > RE exchange
  • Employment shifts
  • Entrenched policies and traditions
  • Limitations on sale of water within the I.I.D.
  • Shifts in agricultural products
  • Loss of Salton Sea
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Mixing Water and Energy at theUS/Mexico Border

Martin J. Pasqualetti

Professor, School of Geographical Sciences & Urban Planning

Senior Sustainability Scientist, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability

Arizona State University

Thank You

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