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Mixing Water and Energy at the US/Mexico Border ________________ Martin J. Pasqualetti Professor, School of Geographical Sciences & Urban Planning Senior Sustainability Scientist, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability Arizona State University. 1-3 June 2014.

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Mixing Water and Energy at the US/Mexico Border

________________

Martin J. Pasqualetti

Professor, School of Geographical Sciences & Urban Planning

Senior Sustainability Scientist, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability

Arizona State University

1-3 June 2014


Background references
Background References

  • Scott Kelley and Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2013. Virtual Water from a Vanishing River. Journal – American Water Works Association. 105:9. September.

  • Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2012. Reading the Changing Energy Landscape. In Sustainable Energy Landscapes: Designing, Planning, and Development, Sven Stremke and Andy Van Den Dobbelsteen, eds. CRC Press, pp. 11-44.

  • Christopher Scott and Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2011. Energy and Water Resources Scarcity: Critical Infrastructure for Growth and Economic Development in Arizona and Sonora. Natural Resources Journal, 50 (3): 645-682.

  • Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2011. Social Barriers to Renewable Energy Landscapes. The Geographical Review , 101 (2).

  • Ron Pate and Martin J. Pasqualetti. Workshop on Climate Change and Energy, Water and Land Interactions November 7-8, 2011 Washington, DC

  • Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2001. Morality, Space, and the Power of Wind-Energy Landscapes, The Geographical Review, 90(3):381-394.

  • Martin J. Pasqualetti. 1980. Geothermal Energy and the Environment: The Global Experience, Energy: The International Journal, 5:111-165.


Outline

Part One - The Energy/Water Nexus

Part Two - Imperial County Water

Part Three - Imperial County Renewables

Part Four - Imperial County Future


Part One

The Energy/Water Nexus


Humanity s top 10 problems for the next 50 years
Humanity’s Top 10 Problems for the Next 50 Years

  • Energy

  • Water

  • Food

  • Environment

  • Poverty

  • Terrorism and War

  • Disease

  • Education

  • Democracy

  • Population

Source: Nobel laureate, Richard Smalley



Part Two

Imperial County Water





Precipitation

Potential Evapotranspiration

Source: Jose M. Güereña, Surface Water Resources for Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Analysis of the Sonora River.


  • Colorado River Basin

  • 7 states

  • 30 million people

  • 4 million acres irrigated

  • 4,200 MW hydropower

  • 15 Native American Tribes

  • 7 National Wildlife Refuges

  • 4 National Recreation Areas

  • 5 National Parks


Crb demand up supply down
CRB Demand Up, Supply Down

Source: USBR, Doug Kenney




Problem 1 evaporation and bank storage at crb hydroelectric reservoirs
Problem #1Evaporation and Bank Storage at CRB Hydroelectric Reservoirs

Lake Mead - 648,000 ac-ft/yr

Lake Powell - 553,000 ac-ft/yr


Problem #2

Transfers of Virtual Water from Electrical Generation in the Colorado River Watershed330,000 Ac-Ft/yr (407 Mm3/yr); ~ 50% exported outside the CRB)

Source: Scott Kelley and Martin J. Pasqualetti. Virtual Water from a Vanishing River Journal – American Water Works Association. 105:9. September. 2013.




The Imperial Valley gets 20% of all the water from the Colorado River – more than Nevada and Colorado combined. It uses 5.6 acre-feet of water per acre per year. Imperial County, with a population of 175,000, gets 3.1 million acre-feet of water a year.


Source: Imperial County: Agricultural Crop and Livestock Report, 2012

http://www.co.imperial.ca.us/ag/Departments_A/agricultural_crop_&_livestock_reports.htm


Part Three

Imperial County Renewables


Three important renewable resources
Three Important Renewable Resources

Photo by: CLUI

Centinela Solar Energy Project

Photo by: John Gibbins U~T San Diego.

Ocotillo Wind Farm

Heber Geothermal Plant


Imperial county wind geothermal and hydro installations
Imperial County Wind, Geothermal and Hydro Installations

geothermal

geothermal

geothermal

wind

geothermal

hydro

Source: Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/state/?sid=CA


Imperial county solar projects
Imperial CountySolar Projects

Source: Center for Land Use Interpretation. http://www.clui.org/content/major-solar-power-plants-usa


Rare and valuable synergies neutralize intermittency of wind and solar
Rare and Valuable Synergies Neutralize Intermittency of wind and solar

“THE BATTERY”

Geothermal is available 98% of the time and can be dispatched at the request of power grid operators @ 2-3MW/minute


*2013 ^2011 ***2014 ^* @ 20% capacity factor

Sources: EIA Electricity Data Browser - http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/browser/

CLUI - http://www.clui.org/content/major-solar-power-plants-usa


Commercial renewable generation in the imperial valley
Commercial Renewable Generation in the Imperial Valley


Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies
Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies

Figure 1 from Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature. J Macknick et al 2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 045802 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/045802


Displace agriculture with electricity
Displace Agriculture with Electricity*

  • $787 million/yr in value**

  • This is more than 40% of the value of the agriculture, but with little water required.

  • 1/3 less water = 1 million ac-ft

* Assuming little to no outside water used in generation.

** @ 13.5 cents/kWh average California price for electricity. Source: State Electricity Profiles (2012) - http://www.eia.gov/electricity/state/


Part Four

Imperial County Futures


Some people oppose re
Some People Oppose RE

Source: http://www.windwiseradio.org/tag/ocotillo/


While others encourage it
While Others Encourage It

Source: Loop-Net.com/geothermal-land/5/


Sequence of acceptance of re
Sequence of Acceptance of RE

Based on research by Maarten Wolsink

Martin J. Pasqualetti. 2001. Morality, Space, and the Power of Wind-Energy Landscapes, The Geographical Review, 90(3):381-394.


Motivations of ag re exchange
Motivations of AG > RE Exchange

  • Save water for other purposes

  • Decrease air emissions from conventional

  • Increase land values and tax revenues

  • Increase energy sustainability

  • Concentrate on high-value crops


Barriers to ag re exchange
Barriers to AG > RE exchange

  • Employment shifts

  • Entrenched policies and traditions

  • Limitations on sale of water within the I.I.D.

  • Shifts in agricultural products

  • Loss of Salton Sea



Mixing Water and Energy at theUS/Mexico Border

Martin J. Pasqualetti

Professor, School of Geographical Sciences & Urban Planning

Senior Sustainability Scientist, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability

Arizona State University

Thank You


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