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UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENCES UNDER UNCLOS BETWEEN SUBMARINE CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. Douglas R. Burnett International Cable Law Advisor, ICPC Partner, Squire, Sanders & Dempsey (US) LLP. ITU Workshop Rome, Italy September 8-9 2011. PRESENTATION OVERVIEW.

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Understanding the differences under unclos between submarine cables and marine scientific research

UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENCES UNDER UNCLOS BETWEEN SUBMARINE CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Douglas R. Burnett

International Cable Law Advisor, ICPC

Partner, Squire, Sanders & Dempsey (US) LLP

ITU Workshop

Rome, Italy

September 8-9 2011


Presentation overview
PRESENTATION OVERVIEW CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

I. SUBMARINE CABLES UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW

  • DIFFERENCES THAT COUNT UNDER UNCLOS FOR A DUAL USE TELECOM/MSR CABLE


UNCLOS (3) CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNCLOS (33)

UNCLOS (57)

3

12

24

200

Nautical

Nautical

Nautical

Nautical

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

GCHS (26-30) High Seas

UNCLOS

(87,112-115)

High Seas

Territorial

Sea

REGIMES CHART

Depth in

Contiguous

Zone

meters

Exclusive Economic Zone UNCLOS (58, 113-115)

0

Shelf

edge

O

O

O

c

c

c

e

e

e

a

a

a

n

n

n

1000

2000

Geological

Base of

UNCLOS (79,113-115)

slope

the slope

Geological

L

L

L

a

a

a

n

n

n

d

d

d

3000

GCCS (4)

rise

4000

Oceanic crust (basalt)

Continental crust (granite)

5000


Adding msr to a telecom cable makes a big difference
ADDING MSR TO A TELECOM CABLE MAKES A BIG DIFFERENCE CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

  • UNLIKE CABLES, MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (MSR) IN THE EEZ AND UPON THE CONTINENTAL SHELF IS SUBJECT TO COASTAL STATE CONSENT.

  • EFFORTS DURING NEGOTIATIONS BY THE U.S. AND OTHER SEAPOWERS TO PROVIDE FOR THE FREEDOM TO CONDUCT MSR WERE NOT SUCCESSFUL

  • UNCLOS PROVISIONS ON MSR REFLECT THE COMPROMISE BETWEEN THE STATES FAVORING FREEDOM OF THE SEAS AND THE COASTAL STATES THAT DEMANDED ABSOLUTE CONTROL OF MSR IN THEIR EEZ AND CONTINENTAL SHELF.

  • COASTAL STATES HAVE SOVEREIGN RIGHTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES AND MSR IN THEIR EEZ AND UPON THEIR CONTINENTAL SHELF

  • A DUAL USE CABLE (TELECOM AND MSR) IS SUBJECT TO THE MSR REGIME (PART XIII).


A major risk
A MAJOR RISK CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

  • UNCLOS ART.’S 245-246

  • COASTAL STATES, IN THE EXERCISE OF THEIR SOVEREIGNTY, HAVE THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO REGULATE, AUTHORIZE AND CONDUCT MSR IN THEIR TERRITORIAL SEAS, EEZ, AND ON THEIR CONTINNENTAL SHELF.

  • SO HOW DOES THAT COMPARE WITH UNCLOS CABLE PROVISIONS?


Coastal state consent requirements
COASTAL STATE CONSENT REQUIREMENTS CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNCLOS MSR- COASTAL STATE CONSENT CAN BE WITHHELD IN EEZ AND CONTINENTAL SHELF. (ART. 245, 246)

Direct significance for the exploitation and exploration of natural resources, whether living or non-living

Drilling, use of explosives, introduction of harmful substances

Construction of installations and structures

Information provided to the coastal State is inaccurate

Prior outstanding obligations to the coastal State from a prior research project

UNCLOS CABLES- NO COASTAL STATE CONSENT REQUIRED, JUST A DUE REGARD OBLIGATION. (ART. 58, 78, 79, 87)


Designation of off limit areas
DESIGNATION OF CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH“OFF LIMIT” AREAS

UNCLOS MSR - COASTAL STATE CAN DESIGNATE AREAS IN THE EEZ AND ON THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OFF-LIMITS FOR MSR FOR EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES (ART 246)

UNCLOS CABLES - AREAS IN THE EEZ AND CONTINENTAL SHELF CAN NOT BE PLACED OFF-LIMITS-ONLY LIMITATION IS DUE REGARD. (ART 58, 78, 79, 87)


Coastal state powers
COASTAL STATE POWERS CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNCLOS MSR - MSR ACTIVITIES SHALL NOT INTERFERE WITH ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN BY COASTAL STATES IN THE EXERCISE OF THEIR SOVEREIGN RIGHTS. (ART 246)

UNCLOS CABLES - NO SIMILAR RESERVATION OF RIGHTS - ON THE CONTRARY SEVERAL LIMITATIONS ON THE COASTAL STATE IMPEDING THE LAYING AND MAINTAINING OF CABLES (ART. 58, 79, 87)


Duties to provide information
DUTIES TO PROVIDE INFORMATION CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNCLOS MSR - DUTY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION TO THE COASTAL STATE

NATURE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

METHODS TO BE USED INCLUDING THE NAME, TONNAGE, TYPE AND CLASS OF VESSELS AND DESCRIPTION OF SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT

EXPECTED DATE OF VESSEL APPEARANCE AND DEPARTURE

NAME OF SPONSORING INFORMATION, ITS DIRECTOR, AND PERSON IN CHARGE OF THE PROJECT

EXTENT THAT COASTAL STATE CAN PARTICIPATE OR BE REPRESENTED IN THE PROJECT (ART 248)

UNCLOS CABLES - NO SIMILAR REQUIREMENTS (ART 58, 78, 79)


Obligations to allow participation
OBLIGATIONS TO ALLOW PARTICIPATION CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNCLOS MSR - DUTIES OF MSR SCIENTIST

COASTAL STATE TO PARTICIPATE OR BE REPRESENTED ON BOARD VESSELS WITHOUT COST TO THE COASTAL STATE. PROVIDE COASTAL STATE WITH REPORTS, PRELIMINARY AND FINAL.

PROVIDE ALL DATA AND SAMPLES TAKEN

PROVIDE ASSESSMENT OF DATA, SAMPLES, AND RESEARCH RESULTS

INFORM COASTAL STATE OF ALL MAJOR CHANGES IN THE RESEARCH (ART 249)

UNCLOS CABLES - NO SIMILAR OBLIGATIONS (ART 58, 78, 79)


Rights of landlocked and geographically challenged nations
RIGHTS OF LANDLOCKED AND GEOGRAPHICALLY CHALLENGED NATIONS CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNCLOS MSR - ART 249 RIGHTS ARE ALSO EXTENDED TO NEIGHBOURING LAND-LOCKED STATES AND GEOGRAPHICALLY DISADVANTAGED STATES PROVIDED THE COASTAL STATE DOES NOT OBJECT TO THE PARTICIPATION OF QUALIFIED EXPERTS APPOINTED BY THE NEIGBORING LANDLOCKED OR GEOGRAPHICALLY DISADVANTAGED STATES) (ART 254)

UNCLOS CABLES - LANDLOCKED STATES OR GEOGRAPHICALLY DISADVANTAGED STATES HAVE NO RIGHTS TO PARTICIPATE IN A SUBMARINE CABLE PROJECT (ART. 58, 78, 79, 87)


Obligation to recover out of service cables
OBLIGATION TO RECOVER OUT-OF- SERVICE CABLES CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNCLOS MSR- UNLESS OTHERWISE AGREED, OBLIGATION TO REMOVE ALL INSTALLATIONS OR EQUIPMENT WHEN RESEARCH COMPLETED. (ART. 249)

UNCLOS CABLES - NO OBLIGATION TO RECOVER INTERNATIONAL CABLES NOT IN SERVICE OUTSIDE OF TERRITORIAL SEAS. (ART. 58, 78, 79)


Coastal state powers to suspend or terminate services
COASTAL STATE POWERS TO SUSPEND OR TERMINATE SERVICES CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNCLOS MSR - COASTAL STATE CAN SUSPEND OR REQUIRE CESSATION OF MSR FOR FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH ART. 249 AND THE MSR OPERATION MUST BE TERMINATED WITHIN A REASONABLE TIME. (ART 253)

UNCLOS CABLES- OUTSIDE OF TERRITORIAL SEAS THERE IS NO RIGHT BY THE COASTAL STATE TO SUSPEND OR REQUIRE CESSATION OF SERVICES OR TERMINATE SERVICES UPON NOTICE BY A COASTAL STATE. (ART 58, 78, 79)


Markings and registry requirements
MARKINGS AND REGISTRY REQUIREMENTS CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNCLOS MSR - INSTALLATIONS AND EQUIPMENT MUST BEAR IDENTIFICATION MARKINGS INDICATING THE STATE OF REGISTRY (ART 262)

UNCLOS CABLES - NO MARKING REQUIREMENTS AND NO STATE OF REGISTRY (ART 58, 78, 79, 87, 112)


Third party liabilities
THIRD PARTY LIABILITIES CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNCLOS MSR - LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH MSR REQUIREMENTS AND POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT (ART. 263)

UNCLOS CABLES - NO LIABILITY FOR MSR. LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE TO OTHER CABLES OR PIPELINES INJURED DURING LAYING AND REPAIR (ART. 114, 115)


The difference eig case study
THE DIFFERENCE: EIG CASE STUDY CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Europe India Gateway (EIG) international telecommunication cable system (2011) showing nations in green where landing permits are required.

  • PLACE HOLDER FOR SLIDE TO BE RECEIVED FROM AT&T


The difference eig case study1
THE DIFFERENCE: EIG CASE STUDY CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Europe India Gateway (EIG) international telecommunication cable system (2011) showing nations in green where landing permits are required.

EIG dual use cable system for telecommunications and marine scientific research (MSR) show additional nations in red where MSR permits would be required to lay and maintain the system in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of non-landing nations.


The difference aag case study
THE DIFFERENCE: AAG CASE STUDY CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH


The difference aag case study1
THE DIFFERENCE: AAG CASE STUDY CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH


Examples of use of msr in cables that make practical sense
EXAMPLES OF USE OF MSR IN CABLES THAT MAKE PRACTICAL SENSE CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

  • OUT-OF-SERVICE CABLES

  • CABLES ALREADY IN USE WITH THE EXPLORATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

  • SINGLE USE MSR APPLICATIONS (I.E. THE NEPTUNE SYSTEM IN CANADA)


Questions
QUESTIONS? CABLES AND MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Perth


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