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Middle Eastern Studies. Terrorist Organizations. MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD. Hizb al- Ikhwan al- Muslimun Founded in 1928 by Hasan al- Banna a 22-year old elementary school teacher Motto:

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Terrorist Organizations

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Middle eastern studies

Middle Eastern Studies

Terrorist Organizations


Muslim brotherhood

MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD

  • Hizb al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun

  • Founded in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna a 22-year old elementary school teacher

  • Motto:

    • Allah is our objective. The Prophet is our leader. The Qur’an is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope”


Terrorist organizations

  • Began as an Islamic Revivalist movement at the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the banning of the caliphate system of government

  • Al-Banna based his ideas on Islam as a way of life.

  • Islamism was called Wahhabism at that time

  • Al-Banna began to supplement the education of his male students with jihadia training.


Terrorist organizations

  • Next 20 years, Muslim Brotherhood became a political party too – Party of the Muslim Brotherhood

  • By 1948, it was blaming Egypt for not caring and had joined the Palestinians in their fight against the “Zionists”/Israel

    • Began terrorist attacks in Egypt

    • Egypt banned the group

      • Egyptian Prime Minister,, Mahmud FahmiNokrashi was assassinated by a member of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1948

      • Al-Banna was killed by Egyptian government agents in 1949


Muslim brotherhood timeline

Muslim Brotherhood Timeline

  • 1928 – formed

  • 1948 – joined Palestinian cause

    • Legalized by Egyptian government in 1948 as a religious organization

  • 1954 – banned again due to insistence that Egypt operate under Shari’a Law

    • Assassination attempt on Egyptian President Nasser – five Brothers executed

  • 1964 – Nasser grants amnesty hoping to weaken interest in Arab Socialist Union Party

    • Three more Brothers try to assassinate him

  • 1966 – top Brotherhood leaders executed and many more put in prison

  • 1970s – Egyptian President Sadat promises Shari’a Law in Egypt

  • 1979 – Sadat signs peace with Israel, ticks off Brotherhood

  • 1981 – Brotherhood assassinates Sadat


Terrorist organizations

  • Today – Brotherhood holds seats in Egyptian Parliament,

    • Has complex financial networks world-wide

    • Has divisions of its group such as

      • Al-Jihad and al Islamiyya in Egypt

      • Hamas in Palestine

      • Mujahideen in Afghanistan

  • Muslim Brotherhood


Fedayeen

FEDAYEEN

  • Founded in 1948 as guerilla militants who tried to infiltrate Israel to mess up their military

  • Made up of refugees living in Gaza, West Bank, Lebanon, and Syria

  • Term became associated with terrorism

  • These groups eventually melded in with other terrorist groups like the al-Fatah and the PLO


Al fatah

Al-FATAH

  • Formed on October 10, 1959 by about 20 Palestinians

  • Became main component of PLO under the leadership of Yasser Arafat.

  • Backed by Syria

    • 1965 - Terrorist raids against civilian targets in Israel

    • Raids were launched from Jordan, Lebanon, and Gaza


Terrorist organizations

  • Original Covenant called for destruction of pre-1967 Israel

  • Changed covenant after Six-Day War in 1967

    • Get rid of Israel and establish a Palestinian state in its place

  • Built by the 1948 refugees from the founding of Israel

  • Originally opposed the formation of the PLO fearing it would become a political opponent


Terrorist organizations

  • Took control of the PLO in 1968 and was led by Yasser Arafat until his death in 2004.

  • Renounced terrorism in 1988

    • Didn’t work, still carry out raids and terrorist acts

  • Today, the leader is MahmoudAbbas


Palestinian liberation organization

PALESTINIAN LIBERATION ORGANIZATION

  • Founded in 1964 during a meeting of the Palestinian Congress

    • Trying to help the Palestinian refugees in Lebanon

  • Led by Yasser Arafat

  • Splinter groups

    • Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine

    • Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (and its General Command)

    • Al-Fatah


Terrorist organizations

  • Primary goal was the destruction of the state of Israel

    • Led massive terrorist campaign for the next 10 years

  • 1974 – PLO decided to move away from terrorism and include political elements so they could negotiate

    • Rejectionist Front splintered off at this time.

    • Yasser Arafat and al-Fatah took over leadership of PLO


Terrorist organizations

  • Under the leadership of Arafat

    • PLO gains recognition from United Nations and Arabs at the Rabat Conference

    • World begins to see PLO as negotiator

  • Israel panics

    • Invades Beirut in 1982 causing PLO to flee

    • Arafat tries negotiations, but it fails, and PLO members get upset

  • Arafat tries to make upset members happy by sanctioning hijacking of cruise ship – AchilleLauro.

    • Stupid move

    • Stupid hijackers shoot wheelchair bound Jew and dump his body overboard.

    • World is FURIOUS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Terrorist organizations

  • 1988 – Arafat recognizes state of Israel and condemns terrorism

    • Leads to talks that gets Palestinians partial self-rule

  • Palestinian Youth feel PLO moves too slow – they have joined with Hamas and Hezbollah to try to speed things up.

  • 2004 – Yasser Arafat dies and MahmoudAbbas took over PLO

  • PLO History


Mujahideen

MUJAHIDEEN

  • Guerilla group that formed when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979

  • Mujahid is one who strives or struggles on behalf of Islam

  • Fought mainly in the mountainous rural areas

  • Led by tribal leaders

  • Main financial backer was Osama Bin Laden

  • Had bases in Pakistan

  • Got arms from Pakistan and Iran

  • Did not want to wage aggressive jihad beyond Afghan borders

  • Disbanded back to their villages after Soviets left

  • 1992, captured Kabul and set up BurhanuddinRabbani as interim president.


Taliban

TALIBAN

  • Students of Islamic Knowledge Movement

    • Mainly Sunni Muslim Pashtuns

  • Formed in 1979 as part of the Mujahideen

  • Finally made a move as an independent group in 1994 with the capture of Kahdahar

    • Pakistan chose a group of well-trained Taliban to protect convoys on a trade route between Pakistan and Central Asia

  • Began to challenge the mujahideen and finally captured Kabul in 1996


Terrorist organizations

  • Sick of all of the years of fighting, the Afghan people welcomed the Shari’a Law established by the Taliban

  • They put Mullah Muhammad Omar as leader of the country

    • Brought back public executions and punishments like stoning and flogging in soccer stadiums

    • Banned kite-flying, television, music, and the internet


Terrorist organizations

  • Men had to wear beards or be beaten

  • Women

    • No education

    • Stay home

    • Only leave home with male relative

      • Could be beaten or shot if the violated this

    • No fingernail polish – finger tips chopped off if caught with it


Terrorist organizations

  • Taliban

    • Profited from smuggling (electronics mainly)

    • Profited from opium trade

  • Due to poor living conditions and weak economy many fled to Pakistan

  • Allowed terrorist groups to set up training camps in Afghanistan

    • Al-Qaeda and Bin Laden trained there.

  • Fell to U.S. invasion after refusing to turn over Bin Laden after 9/11/01.


Terrorist organizations

  • Currently recognize and provide minimal support for the new Afghan government run by HamidKarzai

  • Taliban exists and funds it’s efforts through the illegal opium trade.

  • Taliban Video


Hezbollah

HEZBOLLAH

  • Party of God, founded in 1982 in Lebanon.

  • Goal was to drive Israeli troops out of Lebanon

    • May 2000, they succeeded and the Israeli army pulled out of Lebanon

  • Was the brain child of clerics

  • Wanted to drive out Israelis, then transform Lebanon into an Iranian-style Islamic state

    • Abandoned the idea of an Islamic state but do hold seats in Lebanese Parliament


Terrorist organizations

  • Political rhetoric calls for the destruction of Israel.

  • Iran funded Hezbollah

  • Hezbollah got into the hostage-taking business – especially kidnapping westerners

    • Had suicide bombers too – they were responsible for the 1983 suicide bombing of the U.S. Marine Barracks in Beirut.


Terrorist organizations

  • Also has social services programs which make it popular with the Shia community

  • U.S. considers Hezbollah a terrorist group

  • Lebanon considers it a national resistance movement.

  • Began winning seats in the Lebanese Parliament in 1992.

  • Is still popular in Lebanon today.

  • Hezbollah History


Hamas

HAMAS

  • Founded in 1988 by Ahmad Yassin

    • Yassin was the leader of the Mujama – established in 1973 by the Muslim Brotherhood

    • Mujama was established as a welfare charity

  • Off-shoot of the Muslim Brotherhood

  • Its charter is very anti-Semitic and pledges to rid Palestine of all Jews.

    • Founded to allow Brotherhood to participate in the first intefada


Three wings of hamas

Three wings of Hamas

  • Political Wing

    • Produced leaflets

    • Raised funds

    • Recruited members

    • Coopted mosques

  • Intelligence Wing – al-Majid

    • Internal policing, especially in Gaza

  • Military Wing – ‘Izz al-Din al-Qassam brigades

    • Smallest wing

    • Operated in cells that were hard for the Israelis to track


Terrorist organizations

  • Originally negotiated well with the Israeli government.

    • Negotiations ended when Hamas members kidnapped and killed two Israeli soldiers

  • Hamas did not support Saddam Hussein in the first Gulf War

    • This caused the Gulf states to shift funding from the PLO to Hamas.

  • Hamas eventually declared Israeli soldiers and all Israelis targets

    • Began suicide bombings in 1993

    • Blacklisted by the U.S. and the European Union

    • Iran became its main supporter


Terrorist organizations

  • 2005 – Hamas joins PLO after MahmoudAbbas took over the PLO.

  • 2006 – Hamas officials swept Palestinian elections, defeating al-Fatah and PLO candidates.

  • Hamas and Israel


Al qaeda

AL-QAEDA

  • Began with the mujahideen fighting the Soviets in Afghanistan

  • Means “the base” in Arabic

  • Led by Osama Bin Laden and Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri

    • Financed them against the Soviets first

    • Financed them from Saudi Arabia after that

  • Kicked out of Saudi Arabia for protesting U.S. troops on Saudi soil during the Persian Gulf War in 1991


Terrorist organizations

  • Moved his operations to Khartoum in Sudan

    • Attacked U.S. troops in Somalia

  • 1994 – Sudan succumbed to pressure from Saudi Arabia and the U.S. and kicked Bin Laden out

    • Bin Laden moved to Afghanistan

  • 1996 - Declared war on the U.S.

  • Orchestrated the 9/11/01 attack on the Twin Towers in NYC.

  • Remained in Afghanistan until the U.S. invasion in 2001


Terrorist organizations

  • Al-Qaeda operates like a franchise

    • Doesn’t need a political state

    • Doesn’t need a specific conflict to fight

    • It provides financial and logistical support and name recognitions to groups all over the world


Terrorist organizations

  • Principle Goals

    • Get Americans and American influence out of all Muslim nations

    • Destroy Israel

    • Topple pro-Western dictatorships in the Middle East

    • Establish an Islamic nation that follows the rules of the First Caliphs


Terrorist organizations

  • Bin Laden’s 1998 Fatwa (religious decree):

    • Wage holy war on

      • The U.S.

      • American citizens

      • Jews

      • Apostates (Muslims who don’t agree with him)

  • This concept of thought is known as jihadism


Terrorist organizations

  • Jihadism

    • At odds with nearly all Islamic religious thought

    • Began with two men:

      • Mohammad ibnAbd al-Wahhab – 18th century reformer

        • Says anything Islamic that was brought into the religion after Muhammed’s death is wrong.

        • Religious thought is known as Wahhabism

      • SayyidQutb – Egyptian scholar of the mid-20th century

        • Declared Western civilization the enemy of Islam

        • Denounced Middle Eastern leaders who did not adhere closely to Islam

        • Jihad was needed to defend AND purify Islam

  • Al-Qaeda


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