Referencing Styles (APA, MLA, Chicago University Style): Conversion of APA Style into others. Patanjali Mishra Assistant professor Vardhaman Mahaveer Open Univerity Kota , Rajasthan. APA: 6 th edition: July 2009 MLA: 7 th edition : 2009 University of Chicago Style:16 th edition:
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Vygotsky, L.S.(1978). Mind and society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Papin, R.E. (2003). Introduction. Selected poetry of Charls Darling: 1977-2002 (pp. iv-xxii). Colchester, CT: Colophan Books.
Wilson, S., Floden, R., & Ferrini-Mundy,J. (2001). Teacher preparation research: Current knowledge and recommendations. Seattle, WA; Centre for the Study of Teaching and Policy.
Creech, P. J. (2004). Radiology and the technology of the absurd. Boston: Houghton- Miffin. ( Original work published 1975)
Cochran- Smith, M., & Zeichner, K. M. (Eds.). (2005). Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA Penal on Research and Teacher Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Stanton, D. C., & Farbman, E. (Eds.). (2003).The female autograph: Theory and practice of autobiography. Middletown, CT: Ibis Bookstore Press.
Cochran- Smith, M., & Fries, K. (2005). Researching teacher education in changing times: Politics and paradigms. In M. Cochran- Smith & K. M. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA Penal on Research and Teacher Education (pp.69-109). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary. (1961). Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam.
Nadeau, B. M. & Darling, J. M. (Eds.). (1994-2003). Studies in the history of cutlery (Vols. 4-6). Utica, NY: Mohican Valley- River Press.
O’Connor, C. O. & DeLoatch, K. L. (2003). Whatever happened to the humanities? In I. Rubenzahl (Ed.), Studies in Byzantine Intrigue (pp. 235-278). Hartford, CT: Merganser University Press.
Shorter Oxford English dictionary (5th ed.). (2002). New York: Oxford University Press.
Darling, C. W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Dissertation Abstract International, 44, 4465. (AAD44-8794)
Darling, C. W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
Wheatcroft, G. (2004, June). The Tragedy of Tony Blair. The Atlantic, 293 56-72.
Thomas, E. & Hosenball, M. (2004, May 31). Bush’s Mr. Wrong: The Rise and Fall of Chalabi. Newsweek, 143, 22-32.
Roschelle, J., Tatar, D.,Shechtman, N., & Knusden, J. (2008). The role of scaling up in designing for band evaluating robustness. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 68, 149-170.
Christie, John S. (1993) Fathers and virgins: Garcia Marquez’s Faulknerian Chronicle of a Death Foretold. Latin American Literary Review, 13(3), 21-29.
Poirot, C. (2004, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond ‘morning after’. The Hartford Courant, pp. F1, F6.
Silverman, P. H. (2004, June). Genetic Engineering [Letter to the editor]. The Atlantic,293 14.
Redford, R. (Director). (1980). Ordinary people [Film]. Hollywood: Paramount.
Emily Bronte “expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social” (Taylor, 1988, p.11)
Sexual- selection theory often has been used to explore patterns of various insect mating (Alcock & Thornhill, 1983) ... Alcock & Thornhill (1983) also demonstrate. . .
Patterns by byzantine intrigue have long plagued the internal politics of community college administration in Texas (Douglas et al., 1997)
Retired Officers retain access to all of the university’s educational and recreational facilities (Columbia University, 1987, p. 54)
Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, April 17, 1989) confirmed that the ideas. . . .
Doniger, Wendy, 1999. Splitting the difference. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. 2000. Primate conversation biology. Chicago University of Chicago Press.
Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michael. 1994. The social organisation of sexuality: Sexual practice in United States. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
Bonnefoy, Yves. 1995. New and selected poems. Ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
Wiese, Andrew. 2006. “The house I live in”:Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in the postwar United States. In The new suburban history, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99-119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. Handbook of canvassing for the consulship. In Rome: Late republic and principate, edited by Wlter Emil KaegiJr and Peter White. Vol. 2 of university of Chicago readings in western civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33-46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The letter of Cicero, Vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).
Pieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstine; or, The modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi-xxxvii. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
If a book is available in more than one format, you should cite the version you consulted, but you may also list the other formats, as in the second example below.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The founders’ Constitution. Chicago:University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ .
Smith, John Maynard. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393: 639-40.
If an access date is requires by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as the fourth example below.
Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Quality of life and depressive symptoms in post menopausal women after receiving hormone therapy: Result from the Heart and Estrogen/ Progestin Replacement Study HERS) trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004)
Martin, Steve. 2002. Sports-interview shocker. New Yorker, May 6.
Newspaper article may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn in a New York Times article on June 20, 2002, . . .”) instead of a note or an in-text citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.
Niederkorn, William S. 2002. A scholar recants on his “Shakespeare” discovery. New York Times, June 20, Arts section, Midwest edition.
Amundin, M. 1991. Click repetition rate patterns in communicative sounds from the harbour porpoise, Phoeocnaphoeocna. PhD diss., Stockholm University.
Doyle, Brian. 2002. Howling like dogs: Metaphorical language in Psalm 59. Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the society of Biblical Literature, June 19-22, in Berlin, Germany.
Web sites may be cited in running text (“On its web site, the Evenston Public Library Board of Trustees states . . . “) instead of an in-text citation and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as the second example below.
Evenston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evenston Public Library strategic plan , 2000-2010:A decade of outreach. Evenston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html .
Weblog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to the Becker-Posner Blog on March 6, 2006, Peter Pearson noted . . . “) instead of in a note or an in-text citation , and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the first example below.
Becker-Posner blog, The. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/.
Perseus Digital Library. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/ .
Journal Article particularly when ideas have been summarized after drawing from several sources.COMPARISION OF REFERENCE STYLES
Books by one Author particularly when ideas have been summarized after drawing from several sources.