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SYSTEM OF THE REGULATION IN RADIATION PROTECTION. UNECE Group of Experts Monitoring of Radiologically Contaminated Scrap Metal Vladimír Jurina Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic 5 – 7 April Geneva. System of the Regulations in Radiation Protection. Act No. 272/1994

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System of the regulation in radiation protection

SYSTEM OF THE REGULATIONIN RADIATION PROTECTION

UNECE Group of Experts Monitoring of Radiologically Contaminated Scrap Metal

Vladimír Jurina

Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic

5 – 7 April Geneva


System of the regulations in radiation protection
Systemof the Regulations in Radiation Protection


Act No. 272/1994

on Protection of Human Health

amended by the Act No. 470/2000

  • Basic provisions:

  • basic terms - including in Radiation Protection (RP),

  • prevention of occurrences of diseases, measures for the

  • prevention (including in RP),

  • obligations in the field of health protection (general),

  • radiation protection

  • - basic principles,

  • - medical exposure regulations,

  • - natural radiation exposure regulations,

  • - licensing of practices,

  • - licensing of activities important for radiation

  • protection (monitoring services, personal dosimetry

  • service, ...)


  • - notification of practices or sources,

  • - qualification requirements for licensee, qualified experts

  • and workers,

  • - authorities and their responsibilities (special in

  • RP- licensing of practices),

  • - radioactive waste (non NPPs waste) management

  • requirements,

  • - clearance of radioactive material, effluents,

  • - interventions and radioactive residua management,

  • - obligations of licence holder in RP,

  • authorities (general in health protection),

  • Public Health Authority ,

  • civil service in health protection,

  • monitoring of environment and judgement of its influence

  • on the health,

  • sanctions.


Regulation of Ministry of Health No. 12/2001

on the requirements for securing of the radiation protection

  • basic terms,

  • requirements on the optimization of RP,

  • exposure limits,

  • guidance levels for the medical exposure,

  • principles of the personal dose assessment,

  • classification of the sources,

  • principles of the natural radiation exposure limitation,

  • requirements on the safety within practices,

    • general,

    • controlled area,

    • qualification of workers,

    • quality assurance,

    • documentation,

    • special requirements for practices,


  • radioactive waste treatment,

  • release of the radioactive material from controlled area (effluents, clearance of solid material),

  • requirements on

    • monitoring of the personal doses,

    • monitoring of the workplace and in environment,

    • monitoring plan,

    • examinations of the sources,

    • documentation on sources,

  • radiation protection in emergency and intervention.


Handling of institutional radioactive wastes
Handling of institutional radioactive wastes

(1) Handling of institutional radioactive Act No. 130/1998 Coll.LL. on peaceful uses of nuclear energy (Act No. 130/1998), wastes shall mean collection, sorting, processing, preparation for storage, storage and transport of institutional radioactive wastes, except for transport from the site of processing to site of reposition for resposition.(2) Institutional radioactive wastes may only be handled for the purposes of increasing safety of their further handling and of enabling their safe reposition, recovering of usable materials and improving economy of their further handling by changing their weight, volume or form.(3) Upon handling of institutional radioactive wastes, also other hazardous properties of such wastes have to be accounted for, in particular their toxicity, flammability, explosivity, infectivity, spontaneous fission and residual heat that may influence their safe handling.


(4) Separate regulations shall not apply to handling of institutional radioactive wastes.

(5) Equipment have to be used for handling of institutional radioactive wastes that will

a) provide for protection of persons against radioactive contamination and external irradiation,

b) prevent unjustifiable leakage of radioactive substances or secure their collection,

c) secure that quantities and activity of radioactive substances introduced into the environment be at levels as may be reasonably achieved,

d) allow their safe maintenance and repairs and reliable decontamination.

(6) Equipment used for handling of institutional radioactive wastes must allow regular measurements of variables demonstrating their operating ability.

(7) Equipment used for processing and preparation for storage of institutional radioactive wastes containing explosive or flammablesubstances must be able to withstand potential effects of explosion or fire.


(8) The responsibility for safe handling of institutional radioactive wastes since the moment of their production up to the takeover for adjusting and reposition shall be with the originator of the institutional radioactive wastes.

(9) The costs connected with handling of institutional radioactive wastes shall be borne by the originator of institutional radioactive wastes, since the production of the wastes up to their reposition, including reposition.

(10) Handling of institutional radioactive wastes whose originator is unknown may be performed by only natural persons or legal entities based on authorisation issued by Public Health Authority. Public Health Authoritywill appoint a legal entity or a natural person – holder of authorisation for handling of institutional radioactive wastes whose originator is unknown; in its ruling, the Ministry will identify the scope of handling with such institutional radioactive wastes and the method of its financial coverage.

(11) Holder of authorisation according to the foregoing paragraph 10 shall transport institutional radioactive wastes whose originator is unknown to legal entity or natural person determined according to separate regulations (Act No. 130/1998).

(12) The costs of handling of institutional radioactive wastes whose originator is unknown shall be covered by State Fund of Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Installations and Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Wastes. If the originator of institutional radioactive wastes is subsequently identified, he shall be liable to reimburse the Fund for the costs incurred upon handling of institutional radioactive wastes.


Handling of institutional radioactive waste including disused sealed sources
Handling of institutional radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

Institutional radioactive waste is accumulated at the place of their origin, with consideration of the methods used in their processing and treatment. Radioactive waste must be safely stored at the place of its origin until transport to its processing place.

The owner of the institutional radioactive waste is responsible for all financial issues related to the disposal of disused sources.

No sealed sources are manufactured in the Slovak Republic, and no manufacture is under preparation, either. All the radioactive sources in use are imported and after their utilisation they have to be sent back to the supplier.


Handling of institutional radioactive waste including disused sealed sources1
Handling of institutional radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

The requirement to return the disused source to the supplier is stated in the license issued by the Public Health Authorityto the organisation using sources of ionising radiation.

Sealed spent radioactive sources which are not transferred to the conditioning facility VYZ Jasl. Bohunice) are stored at workstations in such a way that the equivalent dose rate at the outside walls of the storage place does not exceed 1uSv.h-1.

Registration of disused sealed sources is done by the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic where the Central Register of Ionising Radiation Sources in the Slovak Republic is recently being build.


Lost found orphan sources and transportation

Sealed orphan sources , in particular in scrap , are discovered on average twice to three times per year in the Slovak Republic. They may originate from illicit trafficking or a loss of sources in use at certain industrial facilities facing a bankruptcy or winding-up.

Orphan sources are reported to Public Health Authority and following their call an authorised organisation ensures their supervision, transport and safe storage. Financial costs of this activity are covered by the state nuclear decommissioning fund. Such orphan sources are currently temporarily stored within the Košice-based Huma-Lab Apeko´s hot chamber. The most serious was discovery of Co-60 therapeutic sealed source in scrap iron transported to US Steel, a.s., Košice.

Lost, found, orphan sources andtransportation


Lost found orphan sources and transportation cont d
Lost, found, orphan sources and discovered on average twice to three times per year in the Slovak Republic. They may originate from illicit trafficking or a loss of sources in use at certain industrial facilities facing a bankruptcy or winding-up. transportation ( cont´d)

  • There is currently none legislation in the Slovak Republic as would specially govern the management of orphan sealed sources . The general radiation protection principles as laid down by Act No 470/2000 Coll. and the Regulation of Ministry of Health No 12/2001 Coll. are followed

  • In 2003 an agreement between Ministry of Health (Public Health Authority), Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Ministry of Transport was signed.

  • As the number of events related to radiation sources has increased in last time according to this agreement all events will be reported to National INES Officer then classified and reported to the information system INES NEWS as appropriate.


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