M etaskills for inquiry in higher education
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M etaskills for Inquiry in higher education. Hanni Muukkonen Minna Lakkala Centre for Research on Networked Learning and Knowledge Building Dept. Psychology, University of Helsinki http://www.helsinki.fi/science/networkedlearning. Development of expertise.

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M etaskills for inquiry in higher education

Metaskills for Inquiry in higher education

Hanni Muukkonen

Minna Lakkala

Centre for Research on Networked Learning and Knowledge Building

Dept. Psychology, University of Helsinki

http://www.helsinki.fi/science/networkedlearning


Development of expertise

Development of expertise

  • Ability to develop content-specific knowledge and apply it in situations often co-evolves with the development of general thinking skills and metacognitive strategies (Davidson & Sternberg, 1998).

  • Even if learners’ expertise is bound to a specific field of inquiry, there are many skills and competencies, which are generalizable and provide intellectual resources for managing new problem-solving situations.

  • Prior courses: practices of metalevel evaluation that went beyond individual metacognition in the sense that students were not only monitoring and reflecting on their own advancement, but also looking after a collective advancement simultaneously (Muukkonen, Lakkala, & Hakkarainen, 2005).

    Muukkonen, H., Lakkala, M. & Hakkarainen, K. (2005). Technology-mediation and tutoring: how do they shape progressive inquiry discourse? Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14, 527-565.


Conceptualizations to build on

Conceptualizations to build on

  • Self-regulative and metacognitive skills (cf., Boekaerts, Zeidner & Pintrich, 1999; Hofer, 2004;Pintrich, Wolters, & Baxter, 2000)

  • Social metacognition (Jost, Kruglanski, & Nelson, 1998; Salomon & Perkins, 1998; Salonen, Vauras, & Efklides, 2005).

  • Reflective and critical thinking skills (King & Kitchener, 1994; D. Kuhn, 1991)

  • Academic literacy in reading and writing (e.g., Geisler, 1994; Wineburg, 1991)

  • Skills of collaboration and interaction (Brown & Campione, 1994)

  • Knowledge building and Epistemic agency (Bereiter, 2002; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994; 2003).

  • Knowledge-creation metaphor of learning: Sustained work to advance and elaborate ideas across situations and contexts (Paavola, Lipponen, & Hakkarainen, 2004).


Three metaphors of learning a nd expertise paavola et al 2004 hakkarainen et al 2004 sfard 1998

Three metaphors of learning and expertise (Paavola et al. 2004; Hakkarainen et al. 2004; Sfard 1998)

Participation

metaphor

”Dialogical” interaction,

situated cognition

Emphasis on individuals and conceptual knowledge

Acquisition metaphor

”Monological”

within mind

Emphasis on cultural practices, social interaction, and situated cognition

Knowledge-

creation metaphor

”Trialogical”

developing shared objects and artefacts collaboratively

Co-evolution of inquirers, communities, and objects of activity


Metaskills for inquiry in higher education

Aims

  • Exploring metaskills based on analysing students’ engagement in collaborative inquiry

  • Analysing how students evaluated their own engagement and ability to take part in a self-directed inquiry process.

  • Data:

    • database discourse in FLE3 (http://fle3.uiah.fi/) environment

    • students’ self-evaluations

  • Qualitative content analysis


Course psychology of modern learning environments

Course “Psychology of modern learning environments”

  • 12 students (3+5+4)

  • 11 weeks, seven seminar meetings (3-4 hours) and collaboration within the FLE3 (http://fle3.uiah.fi/) environment

  • monitored by three tutors

  • cognitive responsibility for the advancement of inquiry in the hands of the students

  • student-generated themes

    • Qualities of networked environments that support collaborative learning

    • Creative process in a networked community

    • Teachers’ and learners’ roles in a collaborative networked environment


Metaskills for inquiry in higher education

Elements of Progressive Inquiry

(Hakkarainen, 1998)

Constructing Working Theories

Setting up Research Questions

Critical Evaluation

Creating the Context

Distributed Expertise

Refocusing the Inquiry Process

Searching Deepening Knowledge

Generating Subordinate Questions

Back


Principles behind progressive inquiry

Principles behind Progressive Inquiry

  • A pedagogical and epistemological model for representing principal features of (scientific) inquiry.

  • Students’ genuine questions and previous knowledge of the phenomena as a starting point.

  • Attention to main concepts and deep principles of the domain.

  • Deepening process, where the aim is understanding and explanation of phenomena.

  • Students and teachers share their expertise and build new knowledge collaboratively.


Discourse evolution

Group 1

O O

O

TQS S

Q QSTT T T

Q QS STS S S S QS S

Q Q S S S S S O QT

T

T QS

T S S

Q Question

S Substantive knowing

T Theoretical knowing

M Metaknowing

O Organization

Tutor’s message

Group 2

QS S S S S S S S S S

Q QS SQ T QS S

QSTT T

Q T ST T Q QS SS

QT T S

T T

T O O

T

O

T

T T O

Group 3

T Q T

QSQS S S SQST T MOM MO T T TQO OTM M

QS ST T

QSTS S S S

S

T

Q T T O O

Q T

Q T T S T

T S

T MO O O O

Discourse evolution


Challenges based on the database discourse

Challenges based on the database discourse

  • Move from substantive knowledge to the use of theoretical knowledge

  • Use of questions to direct inquiry process (even in new domains)

  • Explicit reflection and monitoring of the collaboration (done more in face-to-face?)

  • Production of a genuinely collective object

  • Most experienced students in group 3 showed particular skills for engaging in and regulating collaborative inquiry.


Metaskills for inquiry in higher education

Paula (Group 3): …there is a problem of relevance with the articles (at least some of them), which we already discussed in the group. It is that a part of the articles cover single research experiments and because the course is so short, its impossible for a student to make summaries (or critically reflect on them considering the research context) just based on single research and their findings presented in articles. I consider that more appropriate sources would be different ready summaries, which draw together general lines on research findings. Just selecting and evaluating knowledge can take too much time, which makes getting to the point a little difficult. It would ideal if there was enough time for focusing on a couple of research articles and the general lines.


Distribution of self evaluations

Distribution of self-evaluations


Challenges based on self evaluations

Challenges based on self-evaluations

  • Commitment and own responsibility

  • Learning a new way of working

  • Sharing unfinished ideas

    • trust, openness to new ideas, self-criticism

  • Collaborative knowledge building takes time

  • Role of prior knowledge and authentic knowledge sources

  • Ill-defined beginning of inquiry process

  • Monitoring the collective process from database discourse


Metaskills for inquiry in higher education

Lauri (group 3): Our group was working very much on its own, but we could do it in a self-regulated environment due to the longer studying experiences of the (other ;) members of our group, so we proceeded well.

Taru (group 3): Definitely more demanding and also harder. Nevertheless, it felt good not to be alone responsible for own work, but the whole group shared equally a responsibility for the advancement of the process. In more traditional seminars it often happens do that you work on your own and on the last moment write everything ready and miss all ideas from others. Although collaboration slows work down at first, I think that it becomes a strength and richness as the process progresses.


Metaskills for inquiry in higher education

Self-regulation

Planning

Strategyselection,

Resources,

Volitional control

Monitoring individual and collective process

Comprehension

Advancement and obstacles

Dealing with uncertainty and new knowledge-fields

Scientific argumentation

Collective process advances through individuals’ participation

Conclusions: metaskills for collaborative inquiry

  • Understanding collaborative inquiry

    • A shared object of inquiry

    • Sharing, publishing, and building on half-baked ideas


Regulation of collaborative inquiry

Regulation of collaborative inquiry

We propose a framework that consists of three encompassing levels:

(1) monitoring and regulating individual process,

(2) monitoring and regulating collective process and

(3) monitoring and regulating efforts in terms of knowledge building and advancement of shared objects.


Metaskills for inquiry in higher education

Previous findingsMuukkonen, H., Lakkala, M. & Hakkarainen, K. (2005). Technology-mediation and tutoring: how do they shape progressive inquiry discourse? Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14, 527-565.

  • Scaffolding by technology supported practices of

    • problem-setting

    • meta-reflection

    • collective efforts

    • object-oriented inquiry

  • Non-technology groups

    • more own explanations

    • focus on understanding and presenting theoretical content

  • Role of tutoring in scaffolding towards

    • an iterative and deepening inquiry process

    • returning to earlier ideas, questions, and re-addressing them


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