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1. Global Interactions
2. Early Japan and Feudalism 1. Shinto: Traditional Japanese religion.
2. Shogun: Top military commanders in feudal system. Had power.
3. Daimyo: Vassal lords. Received land in exchange for a promise to support the shogun with armies.
4. Samurai: Lesser warriors who promised loyalty to daimyo.
5. Bushido: Strict code of conduct of the Samurai.
6. Kabuki: Theater in Japan where they wore colorful costumes.
7. Haiku: Chinese influenced form of poetry.
3. 2 effects of geography on Japanese development. 1. Mountains and islands acted as a barrier to unity.
2. Seas became a source of food and transportation. Led to a deep respect of the environment.
4. China influence on Japan: 1. Writing system brought over by Koreans.
4. Tea drinking and tea ceremonies.
5. Feudal Japan Emperor: Lost power, ruled in name.
Shogun: Top military commanders, had power.
Daimyo: Received land. Promised to support the shogun.
Samurai: Supported the daimyo. Fought.
Other classes: Peasants, farmed land.
Artisans: Made weapons.
Merchants: Lowest social class.
6. How and why did the Tokugawa Shogunate seize power? Created a centralized feudal government by bringing the warring daimyo under central government.
7. How did Tokugawa feel towards foreigners? What did they do? Very hostile.
Barred western merchants and prohibited traveling around.
8. The Mongols and their Impact 1. Genghis Khan: Leader of the Mongols.
2. Golden Horde: Mongol armies in Russia. Named because of their tents.
3. Pax Mongolia: Period of stability in Mongol Empire.
4. Marco Polo: Italian merchant who wrote about Chinese beauty and riches.
5. Ibn Batuta: Scholar from Morocco who traveled around the Middle East and Asia.
9. Why did Mongols win: 1. Skilled horsemen.
2. New military technology.
10. How did the Mongols rule territories? They spread terror and destruction.
Conquered people could live as they had as long as they paid a tribute.
11. What did Mongols do to Russia? Absolute rule was a model for the Russian government.
Cut Russia off from the West (Isolated them).
12. How did Mongol rule encourage trade between China and the west? 1. They helped make the Silk Road and the Middle East become safe to travel on.
13. Why did the Mongols lose power? 1. Too large to govern.
2. Little experience in government.
3. Relied on others to do their job.
14. Global Trade and Interactions 1. Zheng He: Chinese explorer.
2. Venice: Dominant trade power.
3. Trade Fair: Where trade took place on trade routes where navigable rivers met.
4. Hanseatic League: German towns who monopolized trade in Baltic and North Seas.
5. Bubonic Plague: Highly contagious disease carried on by rats.
15. Describe how the following led to an increase in trade:
16. Crusades Europeans became interested in things that the Crusaders brought back which they wanted.
17. Italian City States Because of their location it became a great place to drop off products from the East (China) and then move them through Europe.
18. Trade Fairs and the Growth of Cities Trade fairs were where trade routes met, and then people moved their because of jobs, leading to the growth of cities.
19. The Hanseatic League Made navigation safer which allowed trade to take place.
20. Portugal and the Spice Trade Portugal began the age of exploration for Europe and the Spice Trade was what the Europeans were interested in.
21. Describe the Impact of the Bubonic Plague:
22. Political Monarchs gained power.
23. Social Strictly defined levels broke down.
Peasant revolts started.
24. Economic Devastated.
Farms and industry declined.
The Resurgence of Europe.
26. Terms: 1. Guild: Trade association. All of the people of the same job joined together.
2. Apprentice: Young person trained for a specific job.
3. Capitalism: Economic system based on trade and capital.
4. Commercial Revolution: Change in business.
5. Renaissance: Rebirth in Europe.
6. Humanism: Studied life in the present. Emphasis on achievements.
27. 7. 95 Theses: 95 arguments against Martin Luther against the Catholic Church.
8. Protestant Reformation: When Europeans broke away from the Catholic Church and formed new churches.
9. Magna Charta: Charter that placed limits on the King’s power in England.
10. Common Law: Law that is the same for everyone.
11. Parliament: Representative assembly in England.
28. The Commercial Revolution: Factors that led to the Growth of Trade:
29. Guilds Made sure of good quality products.
Regulated hours and prices.
30. Capitalism Created supply and demand.
Led to people investing in businesses.
31. New Business Practices Partnerships and Joint-Stock Companies: People sharing in the risk.
32. Towns and the Middle Class Towns developed as people move to places for jobs.
Middle Class developed as people started working on jobs they specialized in.
33. How did the Commercial Revolution change society? Led to a decline in feudalism.
34. What were the causes of the Renaissance? Merchants in the cities had great wealth and money and became interested in the arts.
Cities of Italy were thriving centers of manufacturing.
35. Renaissance Artists
36. Michelangelo Painted Sistine Chapel, and statue of David.
37. Leonardo da Vinci Painted Mona Lisa, sketches for airplanes and submarines.
38. Dante Writer, wrote the Divine Comedy.
39. Shakespeare Writer, Romeo and Juliet
40. Machiavelli Writer, wrote the Prince who said rulers should do whatever was necessary to keep their power.
41. Impact of the Printing Press 1. Books were made available, cheaper and easier to make.
2. Literacy increased as books became more available.
3. Ideas spread more rapidly as access to knowledge increased.
42. Causes of the Reformation 1. The Renaissance and Humanism led people to question Church authority.
2. Strong monarchs increased there power over the Church.
3. Problems in the Church, people thought its leaders were acting more like kings than agents of God.
43. Lutheranism People could only reach heaven only through faith in God, not indulgences.
44. Calvinism Could reach heaven only through faith.
45. Counter Reformation Catholic Reformation strengthen the Catholic Church and keep Catholics from converting.
46. Effects of the Reformation 1. Religious and Political Divisions: rulers chose a religion for their nation, some Catholic, some Protestant.
2. Religious Conflicts: Catholic Spain vs. English Protestant.
3. Anti Semitism and Persecution of Jews.
4. Witch Hunts of people believed to be agents of the devil.
47. Difference in governments of France and England: France: Monarchs had control, played rival nobles against each other. England: English rights, people treated equally.
48. African Civilizations Ghana: Kingdom in Africa around 800.
Mali: Kingdom ruled by powerful kings from 120-1450.
Mansa Musa: Powerful Mali ruler who brought Islam to mali.
Songhai: Empire in Africa from 1450 to 1600.
49. Describe how geography of Africa led to diverse civilizations Because of the different landmasses like mountains, rivers, deserts and rainforests, it led to a great deal of difficulty in people uniting and people beginning to do things there own way.
50. Why did the Kingdoms of Sub-Saharan Africa flourish? Because they had gold and salt which they could use to trade.
51. Why was the hajj of Mansa Musa a significant event in the history of the world? He converted to Islam creating a Muslim empire.
52. What impact did his hajj have on Mali? He created a system of justice based on the Koran.