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Chapter 11. Biodiversity Unit. Just the facts. About 82% of temperate deciduous forests have been cleared, broken apart and dominated worldwide US – 95% of virgin forests logged US - 98% of tallgrass prairie is gone US - 85% of California’s redwood forest destroyed

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Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Biodiversity Unit


Just the facts

Just the facts

  • About 82% of temperate deciduous forests have been cleared, broken apart and dominated worldwide

  • US – 95% of virgin forests logged

  • US - 98% of tallgrass prairie is gone

  • US - 85% of California’s redwood forest destroyed

  • US -99% of California’s grassland is gone.


Can you place a value on that

Can you place a value on that?

  • Instrumental value: based on usefulness to humans

    • Use values: goods, services, economy, fun, medicines, etc.

    • Nonuse values: aesthetic value, bequest value (people will pay to protect it),

  • Is simple existence reason enough for protecting something?


Notice anything

Notice anything????

Arctic Circle

Arctic Circle

60°

EUROPE

NORTH

AMERICA

ASIA

30°N

Tropic of Cancer

Atlantic

Ocean

AFRICA

Pacific

Ocean

Pacific

Ocean

150°

120°

90°

30°W

60°E

90°

150°

SOUTH

AMERICA

Indian

Ocean

Tropic of Capricorn

AUSTRALIA

30°S

Antarctic Circle

60°

ANTARCTICA

Critical and endangered

Threatened

Stable or intact

Projected Status of Biodiversity

1998–2018


Same problem two approaches

The Species Approach

The Ecosystem Approach

Same problem,two approaches

Goal

Goal

Protect populations of

species in their natural

habitats

Protect species from

premature extinction

Strategies

Strategy

  • Identify endangered species

  • Protect their critical habitats

Preserve sufficient areas

of habitats in different

biomes and aquatic

systems

Government and Laws – often in response to a problem. Reactive

Organizations – often to prevent problem from occurring. Proactive

Tactics

Tactics

  • Protect habitat areas through private purchase or government action

  • Eliminate or reduce populations of alien species from protected areas

  • Manage protected areas to sustain native species

  • Restore degraded ecosystems

  • Legally protect endangered species

  • Manage habitat

  • Propagate endangered species in captivity

  • Reintroduce species into suitable habitats


Public lands

Public Lands

National parks and preserves

National forests

(and Xs) National wildlife refuges


Even aged management

Even aged-management

Weak trees

removed

Seedlings

planted

Clear cut

25

15

10

30

Years of growth

5


Chapter 11

Explain selective cutting:

Older trees are cut and removed. This prevents overcrowding and allows natural regeneration

Selective Cutting


Chapter 11

Explain shelterwood cutting:

Using multiple cutting to take down most mature trees. Allows for more sunlight to reach lower levels.

Cut 2

Cut 1

Shelterwood Cutting


Chapter 11

Explain seed-tree cutting:

Nearly all mature and middle trees are removed. Seed trees are left to regenerate area

Seed-Tree Cutting


Chapter 11

Clear-Cutting


Chapter 11

Uncut

Cut

Cut

Cut

Uncut

1 year ago

3–5 years ago

6–10 years ago

Strip Cutting

Explain strip cutting:

Clear cut in strips, allow time to regenerate


Chapter 11

Trade-Offs

Clear-Cutting Forests

Advantages

Disadvantages

Reduces

biodiversity

Disrupts

ecosystem

processes

Destroys and

fragments some

wildlife habitats

Leaves moderate

to large openings

Increases soil

erosion

Increases sediment

water pollution and

flooding when

done on steep

slopes

Eliminates most

recreational value

for several

decades

Higher timber

yields

Maximum

economic return

in shortest time

Can reforest with

genetically

improved fast-

growing trees

Short time to

establish new

stand of trees

Needs less skill

and planning

Best way to

harvest tree

plantations

Good for tree

species needing

full or moderate

sunlight for growth

Clear Cutting


Chapter 11

Natural Capital Degradation

Deforestation

  • Decreased soil fertility from erosion

  • Runoff of eroded soil into aquatic systems

  • Premature extinction of species with

  • specialized niches

  • Loss of habitat for migratory species such as

  • birds and butterflies

  • Regional climate change from extensive clearing

  • Releases CO2 into atmosphere from burning

  • and tree decay

  • Accelerates flooding

Consequences


Chapter 11

Solutions

Solutions

Sustainable Forestry

  • Grow more timber on long rotations

  • Rely more on selective cutting and strip cutting

  • No clear-cutting, seed-tree, or shelterwood cutting

  • on steeply sloped land

  • No fragmentation of remaining large blocks of forest

  • Sharply reduce road building into uncut forest areas

  • Leave most standing dead trees and fallen timber for

  • wildlife habitat and nutrient recycling

  • Certify timber grown by sustainable methods

  • Include ecological services of trees and forests in

  • estimating economic value


Certify forests

Certify Forests??

  • Independent companies certify that logging is completed in a sustainable manner, deadwood is left, soils are undamaged.

  • Mitusbishi (one of the world’s largest forestry companies) has all operations certified by a third party.

  • Home Depot, Lowes, Andersen have agreed to sell only wood certified as sustainably grown


Chapter 11

Surface fire

Surface fires burn the organic litter and “clean” the forest floor. Nutrients are returned to soil. Occasional surface fires are beneficial and can prevent crown fires.


Chapter 11

Crown fire


Ii the living world 10 15

II. The Living World (10-15%)

  • 1. Ecosystem Structure (edge effects)

  • 4. Natural Ecosystem Change (ecological succession)

    Video clip of syllabus points.


Top causes of tropical rain deforestation

Top Causes of Tropical Rain Deforestation

  • Population growth (room/food for people)

  • Poverty (try to produce own food)

  • Environmentally harmful government subsidies (some give titles to people who clear the land

  • Debts owed to developed countries (try to make money off TRF to pay back) debt-for-nature-swap

  • Don’t recognize ecological value of forests


Trf products

TRF products

Rauvolfia

Rauvolfia sepentina,

Southeast Asia

Tranquilizer, high

blood pressure

medication


Chapter 11

Foxglove

Digitalis purpurea,

Europe

Digitalis for heart failure

TRF products


Chapter 11

Pacific yew

Taxus brevifolia,

Pacific Northwest

Ovarian cancer

TRF products


Chapter 11

Cinchona

Cinchona ledogeriana,

South America

Quinine for malaria treatment

TRF products


Chapter 11

Rosy periwinkle

Cathranthus roseus,

Madagascar

Hodgkin's disease,

lymphocytic leukemia

TRF products


Chapter 11

Neem tree

Azadirachta indica,

India

Treatment of many

diseases, insecticide,

spermicide

TRF products

Read page 213 “The Incredible Neem Tree”

Is it worth planting more of these???


Chapter 11

Biosphere Reserve

Core area

Buffer zone 1

Buffer zone 2

Tourism and

education center

Human

settlements

Research

station


Chapter 11

What Can You Do?

Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity

  • Plant trees and take care of them.

  • Recycle paper and buy recycled paper products.

  • Buy wood and wood products made from trees that

  • have been grown sustainably.

  • Help rehabilitate or restore a degraded area of

  • forest or grassland near your home.

  • When building a home, save all the trees and as much

  • natural vegetation and soil as possible.

  • Landscape your yard with a diversity of plants natural

  • to the area instead of having a monoculture lawn.


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