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Nutrition for Health and Performance. Mark Watsford Human Movement Department University of Technology, Sydney. ENERGY. WARNING: Extremely complex mathematical formula coming up…. ENERGY intake = ENERGY expended. “Energy balance” Intake > expenditure = weight gain

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Nutrition for health and performance

Nutrition for Health and Performance

Mark Watsford

Human Movement Department

University of Technology, Sydney


Energy
ENERGY

WARNING: Extremely complex mathematical formula coming up…

ENERGYintake = ENERGYexpended

“Energy balance”

Intake > expenditure = weight gain

Intake < expenditure = weight loss

  • Athletes require more energy than the general population


Macronutrients
MACRONUTRIENTS

  • Carbohydrate

    • Cereals, pasta, bread, lollies, sugar,

    • Useful for energy production

    • Need before, (during) and after competition

  • Protein

    • Red meat, eggs, chicken, beans

    • Essential for muscle repair

  • Fat

    • Nuts, butter, oil, peanut butter, fast food, (dairy)

    • Cell development

    • Need some fat in diet, but minimal saturated fat


Food guide a healthy diet
FOOD GUIDE - A HEALTHY DIET

1. Carbohydrate 50-65%

2. Fat <30%

3. Protein 10-15%

4. Alcohol <5%


Athlete diet
ATHLETE DIET

1. Carbohydrate 60-70% 55%

2. Fat <25% <30%

3. Protein 10-15% 15-20%

4. Alcohol <2% <2%

Non-Endurance

Endurance


Why are CHO’s so important for team sports?

  • Fuel source

  • CNS/brain function


Energy systems
Energy systems

  • ATP-PC – ATP production via breakdown of Phosphocreatine (<10sec)

  • Anaerobic Glycolysis – ATP production via breakdown of glucose in the absence of Oxygen (30 sec – 2 min)

  • Aerobic system – ATP production from glucose or fat in the presence of Oxygen (>3 min)

    WHAT IS IMPORTANT FOR SOCCER?


Are all carbohydrates created equally??

High GI carbohydrates

  • High in refined sugar = quick energy burst

  • Fine before, during & after game/training

  • Long term intake associated with diabetes

  • Examples: white bread, sweets, cordials

    Low GI carbohydrates

  • Unrefined CHO = slow/sustained energy release

  • High in fibre, vitamins & minerals

  • More satisfying – reduce chances of ‘snacking’

  • Examples: Whole grain breads/cereals, brown/basmati rice, fresh vegetables


Guidelines for dietary intakes
Guidelines for dietary intakes

  • Carbohydrate

    • Sedentary adult ~3g/kg BW

    • Endurance athlete undertaking heavy training program ~8g/kg BW

    • Adolescent athlete ~5-6g/kg BW

  • Protein

    • Sedentary adult 0.8g/kg BW

    • Endurance athlete undertaking heavy training program 1.2-1.6g/kg BW

    • Strength athlete undertaking heavy training program 1.2-1.7g/kg BW

    • Adolescent athlete 2.0g/kg BW


Foods providing approximately 10g of protein
Foods providing approximately 10g of protein

  • 2 small eggs

  • 30g reduced fat cheese

  • 70g cottage cheese

  • 250ml reduced fat milk or soy milk

  • 35g cooked lean beef, lamb, pork

  • 40g cooked lean chicken

  • 50g grilled fish/ 50g canned tuna or salmon

  • 200g reduced fat yoghurt

  • 4 slices wholemeal bread

  • 3 cups wholegrain cereal

  • 2 cups cooked pasta or 3 cups cooked rice



Dehydration performance1
Dehydration & Performance

  • Important to drink before and during exercise

    • Don’t wait until thirsty! = already dehydrated

    • Use cool, flavoured liquids to encourage intake

    • Drink plenty of fluid following exercise

  • Implications for core body temperature

  • This is the ONE time sports drinks are useful

    • Contain carbohydrates & electrolytes (salt)

  • Soccer research example (McGregor et al, 1999)

    • 90 minutes of intermittent exercise (simulated soccer game)

    • soccer specific skills tested before and after

    • Ingestion of H2O before and every 15 min = no drop-off in skills

    • No fluid = substantial performance drop-off


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