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classification. Classification. Classification taxonomy science of grouping and naming organisms based on shared characteristics. Classification. Classification Purpose for classifying organisms brings order to the diversity of life allows identification of new organisms

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classification1

Classification

Classification

taxonomy

science of grouping and naming organisms based on shared characteristics

classification2

Classification

Classification

Purpose for classifying organisms

brings order to the diversity of life

allows identification of new organisms

basis for scientifically naming organisms

universal standard for communication

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Classification

Classification

common names can often be misleading

jellyfish, starfish, cuttlefish, silverfish

classification4

Classification

Classification

common names can often be misleading

mountain lion, puma, cougar, panther

classification5

Classification

Classification

common names can often be misleading

ringworm, mealworm, acorn worm

fungus

insect larva

aquatic worm

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Classification

Classification

History of classification

Aristotle (350B.C.)

placed all known organisms into two groups

animals & plants

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Classification

Classification

History of classification

Carolus Linnaeus (1750)

father of taxonomy

classified organisms by

physical & structural similarities

places organisms into Species

places species into Genera

introduced binomial nomenclature

written in Latin (Genus, species)

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Classification

Classification

Correctly naming organisms scientifically

First name: Genus (First letter CAPITALIZED)

second name: Species (all lower case)

underline (if hand written) or italicized (computer)

ex: Eastern grey squirrel

Sciurus carolinensis

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Classification

Classification

classification provides a framework in which to study the relationships among living and extinct species

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Classification

Evolutionary Relationships

structural similarities

many shared physical structures provide evidence of close relationship and common ancestry

ex: Lynx & Bobcat

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Classification

Evolutionary Relationships

structural similarities

ex: dandelion & sunflower

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Classification

Evolutionary Relationships

geographical distribution

location of a species help determine relationship with other species

ex: finches on the Galapogos

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Classification

Evolutionary Relationships

chromosomal comparison

chromosome number and shape

ex: cauliflower, cabbage, kale, broccoli

chromosomes are

almost identical

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Classification

Evolutionary Relationships

biochemistry

looks at DNA and similar proteins

ex: horseshoe crab

originally classified with Crustacea

classification15

Classification

Evolutionary Relationships

ex: horseshoe crab

originally classified with Crustacea

better classified as Arachnida

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Classification

Evolutionary Relationships

Breeding behavior

mating calls or mating periods

ex: frogs, birds

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Classification

Evolutionary Relationships

developing the

evolutionary history

of an organism is

phylogeny

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Classification

Evolutionary Relationships

phylogeny of all life

classification19

Classification

Evolutionary Relationships

cladogram model

shows evolutionary relationships between organisms

classification20

Classification

D

Evolutionary Relationships

cladogram model

E

C

B

A

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Classification

Taxonomic Hierarchy

Domain – broadest classification

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species – most specific

sometimes -subspecies (animals),

varieties (plants)

strains (bacteria)

D K P C O F G S

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Classification

Taxonomic Hierarchy

classification of human?

Domain – Eukarya

Kingdom – Anamilia

Phylum – Chordata

Class – Mammalia

Order – Primate

Family – Homididae

Genus – Homo

Species – Sapien

Binomial name?

Homo sapien

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Classification

History of Classification

1700’s

Aristotle’s system

Plantae & Animalia

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Classification

History of Classification

Late 1800’s

with the use of the microscope, new kingdom was found

Plantae, Animalia & Protista

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Classification

History of Classification

1950’s

New tool - electronmicroscope, new kingdom was found without a nucleus

Plantae, Animalia, Protista & Monera (bacteria)

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Classification

History of Classification

1960’s

Biochemical studies showed difference in cell wall composition (split up one of our Kingdoms)

Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Monera & Fungi

chitin

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Classification

History of Classification

1990’s

Structural and biochemical studies found difference in cell wall of some Monerans

Plantae, Animalia, Protista,Archaebacteria, Eubacteria& Fungi

peptidoglycan

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Classification

Current System

3 Domain system

developed from looking at ribosomal RNA

Bacteria – Eubacteria

Archea – Archaebacteria

Eukarya – Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protista

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Classification

Current System

3 Domain system

classification30

Classification

Tools for classification

field guide

gives physical description of species

may show range (locations it lives in)

gives picture of species

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Classification

Geospiza

Platyspiza

Certhidea

Camarhynchus

Tools for classification

dichotomous key

uses sets of paired (usually opposite) traits to help classify a species

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