Data sources and collection methods
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 20

Data sources and collection methods PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 149 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Data sources and collection methods. Ken Mease Cairo, June 2009. What types of Data?. A thorough assessment may well include: Archival and secondary data Survey data Quantitative and qualitative approaches and data It also will likely include de jure and de facto information.

Download Presentation

Data sources and collection methods

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Data sources and collection methods

Data sources and collection methods

Ken Mease

Cairo, June 2009


What types of data

What types of Data?

A thorough assessment may well include:

  • Archival and secondary data

  • Survey data

  • Quantitative and qualitative approaches and data

  • It also will likely include de jure and de facto information


Qualitative and quantitative data

Qualitative and Quantitative data

  • There are basically two types of data: qualitative and quantitative

  • Qualitative data are usually text or words and quantitative data - numbers

  • Qualitative approaches, if conducted in a rigorous manner, require more skill than most quantitative approaches


Qualitative data and approaches

Qualitative Data and Approaches

  • Qualitative approaches provide text data, but increasingly audio, video and images

  • They are more time consuming to analyze

  • Text management software, such as NVIVO, AtlasTI and AnSWR (available free at http://www.cdc.gov)

  • Coding is a very subjective process and open to various problems, such as investigator bias or a lack of inter-coder reliability


Quantitative data and approaches

Quantitative Data and Approaches

  • Quantitative approaches provide increased rigor by investigating relationships at known levels of probability

  • They are easier to analyze because researchers use standard, replicable techniques

  • Common software includes SPSS, Stata and SAS


Sources and types of governance data

Country reports/desk studies

Cross-country (region)comparative surveys

Expert assessments

Government data

Household surveys

Mass opinion surveys

Key Stakeholder Surveys

Media Indicators

Business surveys

Sources and Types of Governance Data


Combining different sources and methods

Combining different sources and methods

  • Combining methodologies and types of data often provides the most useful results.

  • Combining archival information and administrative data with original qualitative and quantitative survey data allows for triangulation

  • This approach can increase the level of professionalism, credibility and legitimacy.


Administrative archival and secondary

Administrative, archival and secondary

These data, both qualitative and quantitative, objective, reported events, perception and proxies come from a variety of sources:

  • Narrative reports, administrative data and other information routinely collected by government ministries

  • The constitution, laws, policies and legislation

  • Statistics and data gathered by NGOs, international organizations and academics.


Data mapping

Data Mapping

  • It is the best way to identify existing data - accessibility, quality and gaps

  • One tool available to assist with this process is the IMF’s Data Quality Assessment Framework

  • A senior academic conducted the data mapping exercise in Zambia and was very valuable


Survey data

Survey Data

  • Qualitative and Quantitative

  • Sample sizes can range from 20 to 20,000 or more

  • Costs can range accordingly

  • There are a range of options for who collects the data – independent surveys firms, academics, NSOs

  • Perception and reported events data


Different types of interviewing

Different Types of Interviewing

  • Structured interviews use an identical instrument for each respondent,

  • Interviewers are trained and have explicit instructions.

  • This technique uses primarily structured questions with fixed response sets and very few open-ended questions


Types of interviewing

Types of Interviewing

  • Semi-structured interviews use a written list of questions that need to be covered in a particular order

  • The questions are often developed from informal discussions and focus groups.

  • They can include open-ended and/or more structured questions

  • Ideal when working with elites, managers, bureaucrats and other people who have limited time


Types of surveys and data collection methods

Types of surveys and data collection methods

  • Face-to-face data collection is likely the best option in most developing countries

  • It is also the most expensive and time-consuming

  • It requires professional management of trained interviewers, sampling and other aspects of the study


Mail surveys

Mail surveys

  • Work well only if the postal system is reliable

  • The questionnaire must be carefully designed for self-administration, and there should not be too many language issues

  • The cost is usually quite reasonable

  • It misses the homeless and other vulnerable groups who may not have a valid mailing address


Internet surveys

Internet surveys

  • Require special planning and design

  • Very good for certain populations

  • These surveys can suffer from low response rates.

  • Developing and implementing internet surveys has become very reasonable in terms of cost

  • Very reasonably priced internet services are available - Survey Gizmo at www.surveygizmo.com


Telephone surveys

Telephone surveys

  • May have coverage issues in most countries.

  • In many countries, people do not have a phone in their home, and if they do have a phone, it is usually a mobile or cell phone

  • Most cell phone providers do not make telephone numbers available for use in random-digit-dial surveys.


Focus groups

Focus groups

  • Can generate information about the background conditions surrounding governance issues.

  • Focus groups are usually efficient in terms of time and money.

  • They are highly participatory and have the potential of generating solutions to the problems identified by the group members

  • It is very demanding and requires highly skilled coordinators.


Focus groups1

Focus groups

  • Make individual ratings insignificant

  • Accuracy can suffer, as some individuals may not feel comfortable to speak up in public, while others are hard to keep quiet

  • Focus groups yield less systematic results

  • Focus groups are best used to identify issues and develop surveys rather than as the only source of data


Who collects the data

Who collects the data

  • Outside contractors – surveys and desk studies

  • Local survey researchers

  • Local academics for desk studies

  • National Statistical Offices

  • Government ministries

  • NGOs/CSOs


Data collection and dissemination exercise

Data collection and dissemination exercise

  • Pick aGovernance issue in your country

  • Choose the levels and types of the data you will collect – Macro, Micro, De jure and De facto

  • Identify the types and sources of data

  • Choose the data collection method/s

  • Identify who will collect the data

  • Select several options for sharing the results with different audiences


  • Login