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Are you prepared?. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZAJbJc1ayc start 2:27. Renewable or Non-Renewable?. What is Radiation?. Uranium 92 U 238.02891. How many protons? How many electrons? How many neutrons?. 6 C Carbon 12.011. 92 protons 92 electrons 146 neutrons. What is Radiation?.

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Are you prepared

Are you prepared?...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZAJbJc1ayc start 2:27


Renewable or non renewable

Renewable or Non-Renewable?


Are you prepared

What is Radiation?

Uranium

92U238.02891

How many protons?

How many electrons?

How many neutrons?

6

C

Carbon

12.011

92 protons

92 electrons

146 neutrons


What is radiation

What is Radiation?

  • Radiation = particles given off by unstable atoms.

  • 3 Types:

    • Alpha (α)

      • Travels few inches

      • Blocked by paper (skin)

    • Beta (β)

      • Travels few feet

      • Blocked by aluminum, glass

    • Gamma (γ)

      • Travels far

      • Blocked by lead (steel & concrete).


Background radiation

Background Radiation

  • The amount of radiation we are exposed to daily from the environment

  • Average =

    360 millirem/year or

    3 millisieverts


Are you prepared

www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt


Are you prepared

Effects of Radiation

  • Genetic damages: from mutations that alter genes

    • defects can become apparent in the next generation

  • Somatic damages: to tissue, such as burns, miscarriages & cancers

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Nuclear waste

Nuclear waste

  • Power plants produce radioactive wastes

    • mostly spent fuel rods (3-4 years)

    • each reactor produces about 20-30 tons yearly

  • Currently stored in pools on site and then above ground casks

    • some remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years

  • How should we store this waste?


Yucca mountain

Yucca Mountain


Options for waste

Options for Waste

  • Keep onsight

  • Bury

  • Shoot into space

  • Bury in ocean floor

  • Bury in Antarctica

  • Change it into harmless or reprocess to make new fuel


Low level high level radioactive waste

Low-Level & High Level Radioactive Waste

Emit small amounts of ionizing radiation

Stored 100-500 years

19401970: put in steel drums, dumped in ocean (still UK & Pakistan)

1970+: gov’t run landfills

  • Stored for thousands of years

  • Mostly spent fuel rods (240,000 yrs)

  • Safety debate

  • Options:

    • Keep onsight

    • Bury

    • Shoot into space

    • Bury in ocean floor

    • Bury in Antarctica

    • Change it into harmless


Are you prepared

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Nuclear energy

Nuclear Energy

  • The energy that exists within the nucleus of an atom.

  • Nuclear Fission = the release of energy from the splitting of atoms!

  • Nuclear Fusion = the combining of two smaller atoms into one larger atom.

  • http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/29389-assignment-discovery-nuclear-basics-video.htm


Nuclear fission

Nuclear Fission

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pmy5fivI_4U


Nuclear fusion

Nuclear Fusion


Nulear change

Nulear Change

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Fusion

Sun and stars, some weapons

2 small (light) isotopes are forced together

H + H = He

Need temps > 100,000,000ºC

Releases more E than fission

  • Bombs & power plants

  • Big, unstable isotopes are struck by neutrons, which splits the isotope’s nuclei

  • More neutrons “shoot out” to strike nearby isotopes, causing a chain reaction.


Are you prepared

437 commercial reactors in 32 countries, producing 17% electricity


Nuclear power plant

Nuclear Power Plant

a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction

heats water

produce high-pressure steam

that turns turbines

which turns generator and creates electricity.

http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power2.htm


Are you prepared

Controlled Nuclear Fission Reaction


Are you prepared

  • http://www.animatedsoftware.com/environm/nukequiz/nukequiz_one/nuke_parts/reactor_parts.swf

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


Boiling water reactor

Boiling Water Reactor


Are you prepared

Pressurized Water Reactor

Boiling Water Reactor


Are you prepared

http://www.ida.liu.se/~her/npp/demo.html


Nuclear reactor

Where nuclear fission occurs.

Surrounded by thick concrete, steel & lead.

Blocks all radiation!

Nuclear Reactor


Inside the reactor

Fuel Rods

35,000 – 70,000 fuel rods

3% Uranium-235 pellets

In water (moderator)

Control Rods

absorb extra neutrons

Control the chain reaction

Inside the Reactor

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704396504576205000098975380.html#project%3DFUELASSEMBLY0317%26articleTabs%3Dinteractive


Cooling tower

Cooling Tower

  • Water is the coolant in the system.

  • Tower is used to condense hot steam to liquid water.

  • Usually taken from river, lake, ocean.

  • Water can be reused.


Decommissioning

Decommissioning

Life span of a power plant = 15-40 years

Parts wear out, Fuel is spent

Plant is shut down

Highly radioactive for 240,000 years

Must store for 10 times the half-life

What can we do with them?


Are you prepared

Half-Life

= time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation to form a stable isotope

Half-timeemitted

Uranium 235710 million yrsalpha, gamma

Plutonium 23924,000 yrsalpha, gamma

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt


When people think about nuclear power they think about

When people think about nuclear power they think about…

  • Effects of radiation

  • Nuclear waste disposal

  • Nuclear disasters


Three mile island 1979

Three Mile Island - 1979

  • .008 sieverts over 7 days

  • Remember 1,000 sieverts is radiation sickness

  • 5,000 is death

http://maps.google.com/maps?um=1&hl=en&q=three%20mile%20island%20plant%20map&ndsp=20&safe=on&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=il


Chernobyl 1986

Chernobyl - 1986

  • 300 sieverts per hour

  • 240 acute radiation sickness; 31 died within 3 months

  • 100,000 people evacuated

  • Some claim up to 985,000 deaths due to Chernobyl


Chernobyl fallout

Chernobyl Fallout


Japan

Japan

  • 0.4 sieverts per hour

  • 70,000 people evacuated

  • 140,000 told to stay inside


Are you prepared

  • http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/search/assetDetail.cfm?guidAssetID=BE0FB49C-7C70-4C56-95F2-B3904BC9077F

  • 10 min video on nuclear energy

    • Fission, fusion, overview


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