A comparison of pesticide environmental risk indicators for agriculture
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A Comparison of Pesticide Environmental Risk Indicators for Agriculture. Thomas Greitens Esther Day. Ranking CHEMS 1 (USA) EIQ (USA) MATF (USA) PERI (Sweden). Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) EPRIP (Italy) EYP (The Netherlands) SyPEP (Belgium) SYNOPS (Germany).

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A comparison of pesticide environmental risk indicators for agriculture

A Comparison of Pesticide Environmental Risk Indicators for Agriculture

Thomas Greitens

Esther Day


Risk indicator systems

Ranking Agriculture

CHEMS 1 (USA)

EIQ (USA)

MATF (USA)

PERI (Sweden)

Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC)

EPRIP (Italy)

EYP (The Netherlands)

SyPEP(Belgium)

SYNOPS (Germany)

Risk Indicator Systems


Aft s research goals
AFT’s Research Goals Agriculture

  • Evaluate usability of environmental risk indicators.

  • Analyze potential applicability at farm level.

  • Assess accuracy.


Methodology
Methodology Agriculture

Data Collection:

  • 2000-2001 application data, 4 FL fields, tomatoes and peppers

  • Soil samples

  • Weather data

  • Pesticide parameters


Results
Results Agriculture

  • Most models track reductions in potential risk consistently over time.

  • Some models are “outliers” but consistent with previous research.


Usability
Usability Agriculture

  • Ranking method simpler.

  • PEC method more data intensive, more complex

    but

  • PEC also gives more complete picture of potential risk.


Models soil and water
Models – Soil and Water Agriculture

  • Some consider potential risk to soil

  • All consider potential risk to aquatic organisms.

  • Some calculate potential groundwater leaching.

  • Some consider potential risk to human health (e.g. cancer risks).


Farmer applicability
Farmer Applicability Agriculture

Models can be used to:

  • Analyze past and future applications

  • Obtain certification.


Research concerns
Research Concerns Agriculture

  • Absence of data

  • Adaptability of models?

  • Non-transferable standards (e.g. European drinking water standards)


Synops as a separate model

SYNOPS as a Separate Model Agriculture

Synoptisches Bewertungsmodell für PflanzenSchutzmittel

Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Institute for Technology Assessment in Plant Protection


Synops modules
SYNOPS Modules Agriculture

SYNOPS Modules

  • SYNOPS calculates PEC over time in:

    • Soil

    • Surface water

    • Air

    • Bio-organisms (earthworms, fish, algae, daphnia)

    • Groundwater




Risk potential to organisms
Risk Potential to Organisms Agriculture

  • Acute: LD50 and LC50 of organisms and short term predicted concentration.

  • Chronic: based on NOEC of of organisms and long term predicted concentrations.


Acute fish
Acute – Fish Agriculture


Chronic fish
Chronic – Fish* Agriculture

*all chemicals, one field


Propensity to leach
Propensity to Leach Agriculture


Scale of synops
Scale of SYNOPS Agriculture

  • SYNOPS lends itself to larger scale evaluation

  • Possible to expand from farm-level, homogeneous environmental conditions to larger, heterogeneous conditions.


Validation of model
Validation of Model Agriculture

  • ENVIROMAP project - German-South African collaboration.

  • Comparison between actual and predicted concentrations in orchards in the tributaries of the Lourens River catchment.


Prediction vs measurement
Prediction vs. Measurement Agriculture

  • Regression analysis: significant positive correlation (R2=0.95) between predicted and measured average runoff loads in the tributaries.

  • Basic drift deposition values proved accurate (R2=0.96) in predicting in-stream loads.

    results indicate applicability to South African conditions.


Conclusions
Conclusions Agriculture

Models using:

  • Ranking method  know potential risk before application.

  • PEC method  know potential risk after application

    therefore

    Can be used by farmers to make strategic choices

  • Measure reductions achieved by IPM programs

  • Some models better reflect regional concerns

    But…

  • Limited to pesticides, no nutrient impact assessment


Future aft research
Future AFT Research Agriculture

  • Further integrate models in the concept of IPM program evaluation and environmental risk assessment.



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