Structure and function of dna
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Structure and Function of DNA. DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis . DNA Structure . Double Helix in Shape- two stands wound around one another. Composed of subunits called nucleotides Parts of a Nucleotide 5 Carbon Sugar- Deoxyribose Phosphate Group Nitrogen Base (4 Flavors)

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Structure and Function of DNA

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Structure and function of dna

Structure and Function of DNA

DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis


Dna structure

DNA Structure

  • Double Helix in Shape- two stands wound around one another.

  • Composed of subunits called nucleotides

    • Parts of a Nucleotide

      • 5 Carbon Sugar- Deoxyribose

      • Phosphate Group

      • Nitrogen Base (4 Flavors)

        • Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine (A,T,C,G)


Nucleotides of a dna molecule

Nucleotides of a DNA Molecule


Watson and crick

Watson and Crick

  • Credited with Double Helix Model

    • Spiral staircase or twisted ladder

    • Maurice Williams and Rosalind Franklin worked with them also.


Base paring

Base Paring

  • Chargoff’s Rule

    • A,C,T, G always bind in a certain way

    • Adenine- Thymine

    • Cytosine- Guanine

    • Hydrogen Bonds Hold Them Together


Function of dna

Function of DNA

DNA stores all of the genetic information for the cell.

If it located in the nucleus but can also be found in the mitochondria and the chloroplast.

Serves as the blueprint for making proteins.


Dna replication

DNA Replication

  • Copying DNA to make an exact copy (in nucleus)

    • DNA strand unwinds and separates

    • Enzymes help new DNA chains form by using nucleotides floating around the nucleus.

    • Produces two new exact copies of the original DNA strand.

    • Occurs during S phase if interphase

    • Remember A-T and C-G !!!


Replication practice

Replication Practice

1. CTC GGG ATA CTG GGG CGT

2. ATG GCG CGT CGT CAT TAC

3. GTG CGT CAT CCC AAA TTT

4. TAC CAT ATC GTA CGT GTA

5. AAT TTA TAT CTC GTG CCC


Part ii rna

Part II: RNA

  • Ribonucleic Acid

  • Structure of RNA

    • Made of nucleotides

    • Sugar-Ribose

    • Uracil Replaces Thymine and Pairs with Adenine

    • Single Strand not double

    • Smaller than DNA


Types of rna

Types of RNA

  • mRNA- messenger RNA

    • Carries RNA info from nucleus to cytoplasm

  • tRNA- transfer RNA

    • Picks up amino acids

  • rRNA- ribosomal RNA

    • Makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made.


Dna vs rna

DNA VS. RNA


Transcription

Transcription

DNA RNA

Occurs in the nucleus

When the cell needs a protein is transcribes a certain part of DNA into RNA.

RNA is then the directions to make the proteins.


Transcription practice

Transcription Practice

1. TAC GGC TAT ATC CTG CGC TAT ACG ATT

2. TAC CCG GAT CCG TTC ATA CGT ACT ATC

3. TAC GTA AAA AGT GGG CCC TAT GAT ATT

4. TAC GTA CGT CAT GAT TAG AGT TCT ATC

5. TAC GTA CTA GTA CCC GTA ATA AGA ATC


The genetic code

The Genetic Code

RNA is read in sets of 3 bases called codons.

Each codon CODES for a specific amino acid.

Start Codon –AUG

Stop Codons- UAA, UAG, UGA


Translation

Translation

Making proteins from the mRNA code.

mRNA leaves the nucleus and moves to the cytoplasm.

Goes to the ribosome where it is read is sets of 3 bases called a CODON.

tRNA picks up amino acids needed to make specific proteins


Protein synthesis

Protein Synthesis

  • Structure of Proteins

    • Polymers made of amino acids bonded by peptide bonds.

    • Specific sequence of amino acids makes each protein.

    • There are 20 different amino acids used to make proteins.


Protein assembly

Protein Assembly

Once at the ribosome, the amino acids brought by the tRNA are bonded together by peptide bonds.

Bonded by peptide bonds.

MAKES A PROTEIN.


Summary

SUMMARY


Translation practice

Translation Practice

Transcribe and Translate the following sequences.

DNA- TAC GGT ACT TAG AGA TTT AAA ATT

RNA

AA

2. DNA- TAC GTG GGG TTT ACT TCA CAT TTC GAG

RNA

AA


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