Soil and Natural Vegetation. CGC1D Fri, Feb 28, 2014. Soil. Soil is a naturally occurring, unconsolidated or loose material on the surface of the earth, capable of supporting life Soil is made up of four components (MOMA):
Fri, Feb 28, 2014
Rich in organic materials
Dark brown/ black
Mineral and organic laterlighter brown
Where soil is “made”
Plants need moisture and heat in order to survive
Natural vegetation refers to those plants that grow without any human interference.
There are 3 main types of natural vegetation in Canada: tundra, forest, and grassland.
Canada is divided into 7 natural vegetation regions:
Far North- above the treeline
shrubs, mosses, lichens, small flowers
Cold, short growing season
Very little precipitation (<400 mm)
Thin soils, permafrost.
to the south of the Tundra
Mostly Coniferous (needle-bearing) trees
Longer growing season than Tundra
More precipitation than Tundra
Grey, shallow, acidic soil.
Transition zone between Boreal and Deciduous forests
Both deciduous and coniferous trees
Active lumber industry
Warm summers, cool winters
Regular, abundant precipitation
Deep, grey-brown topsoil, rich in minerals
Well suited to farming
Disappearing in the southern regiondue to farming, transportationroutes, and urbanization.
A very small region in Canada
Found in SW Ontario
Has mostly been cleared for farming and urban development
Long, hot summers, mild winters, lots of rain
Hardwood trees: maple, beech, ash
Dark brown topsoil rich in minerals, most fertile soils in Eastern Canada.
climate is too dry for most species of trees to survive
Some trees along river valleys
Native grasses everywhere
Short-grass prairie: driest areas to the south, unsuitable for most crops. Used for grazing cattle.
Long-grass prairie: increased precipitation, rich black soil
Parkland: transition zone between prairie and boreal forest.
Long Grass Prairie
Short Grass Prairie
This region has a wide range of soils, temperatures, rainfall, and elevations
Varies from large coniferous forests in wetter locations to grasses and cacti in drier regions.
Douglas fir, Sitka spruce,