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Knowledge, Rationality, & Action. Courtesy of Prof. Wiebe van der Hoek Computer Science The University of Liverpool United Kingdom.

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Knowledge rationality action

Knowledge, Rationality, & Action

Courtesy of Prof. Wiebe van der Hoek

Computer Science

The University of Liverpool

United Kingdom


Agents paradigm

``..eventually, when you put enough feelingless calculations together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

Hofstadter, 1981,

Scientific American

Agents’ Paradigm


Sense plan act cycle agents

sense together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

sense

act

act

goal

info

sense

act

sense-plan-act cycle (Agents)

plan


Sense plan act cycle mas

sense together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

sense

act

act

goal

info

sense

act

sense-plan-act cycle (MAS)

plan


Rationality
Rationality together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

A

B

B

A

A

A

1

4

$4

$3

$1

$5

$2

$4

$7

$3

$6

$5

$1 for A

$6 for B


Rationality1
Rationality together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

A

B

B

A

A

A

1

4

4

3

1

5

2

4

7

3

6

5

$1 for A

$6 for B


Rationality2
Rationality together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

A

B

B

A

A

A

1

4

4

3

1

5

2

4

7

3

6

5

$1 for A

$6 for B


Rationality3
Rationality together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

A

B

B

A

A

A

1

4

4

3

1

5

2

4

7

3

6

5

$1 for A

$6 for B


Rationality4
Rationality together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

A

B

B

A

A

A

1

4

4

3

1

5

2

4

7

3

6

5

$1 for A

$6 for B


Rationality5
Rationality together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

A

B

B

A

A

A

1

4

4

3

1

5

2

4

7

3

6

5

$1 for A

$6 for B


Rationality6
Rationality together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

A

B

B

A

A

A

1

4

4

3

1

5

2

4

7

3

6

5

$1 for A

$6 for B


E pistemic l ogic relies on 4 axioms

K(f together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’y)  (Kf  Ky)

agents reason logically

Kf  f

veridicality

Kf  KKf

positive introspection

¬Kf  K¬Kf

negative introspection

Epistemic Logic Relies on 4 Axioms


Multiagent Knowledge together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

KAm: A knows m

A sends m to B

KAm ?

KBm ? Em ?

KAKB m?

KBKAKB m? KAKBKAKB m, ..., Cm?


Knowledge
Knowledge together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

: Monica and Chandler are ...

¬: they are just friends


Nested knowledge
Nested Knowledge together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

Post:

Kc, Km, Kj

E{cmj} , E{cmj}E{cmj} 

E{cmj} (¬Kr & ¬Kp &¬Kro)

Goal{m,c}(¬Kr & ¬Kp &¬Kro)

Goalj(Kr & Kp &Kro)


Rachel finds out
Rachel Finds Out … together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

  • Pre:

  • Kj, ¬Kr, Br

  • ¬KjKr, ¬Kj ¬Kr


Rachel found out
Rachel Found Out together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

  • Pre:

  • Kj, ¬Kr, Br

  • ¬KjKr, ¬Kj ¬Kr

  • Post:

  • Kj, Kr,

  • KjKr, KrKj,

  • E{j,r}, E{j,r} E{j,r} 


Phoebe found out
Phoebe Found Out together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

  • Pre:

  • Kj, Km, Kp, Kr

  • E{j,r,p},

  • ¬E{j,r,p}E{j,r,p}

Let us call this team the Friends team (r, p, and j)

and let {c, m, and j } be the Lovers team: ¬EFEF


Phoebe found out1
Phoebe Found Out together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

  • Pre:

  • Kj, Km, Kp, Kr, Kc

  • EF,

  • ¬EFEF

  • Post:

  • EFEF

  • ¬KmEF, ¬KcEF

  • ¬ELEF, Goalp ¬ELEF, Goalj ELEF

    (Phoebe tries to seduce Chandler)


M and c learn e f
m and c Learn together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’EF

  • Post:

  • EFEF

  • ¬KmEF, ¬KcEF

  • ¬ELEF

    (Chandler tells Monica about the attempted seduction)


M and c learn e f1
m and c Learn together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’EF

  • Pre:

  • EFEF

  • ¬KmEF, ¬KcEF

  • ¬ELEF

  • Post:

  • KmEF, KcEF

  • EL EF

  • ¬EF EL EF


P and r learn e l e f
p and r Learn together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’EL EF

  • Pre:

  • KmEF, KcEF

  • EL EF

  • ¬EF EL EF, BF EL EF


P and r learn e l e f1
p and r learn together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’EL EF

  • Pre:

  • KmEF, KcEF

  • EL EF

  • ¬EF EL EF, BF EL EF

  • Post:

  • EF EL EF

  • ¬E LEFELEF


E friends happy
E (Friends) Happy? together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’


Common knowledge
Common Knowledge together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

  • Ej: Everybody knows j

  • Ej  EEj

  • Cj: it is Common Knowledge that j

  • idea: Cj = Ej & EEj & EEEj & EEEEj & …..

  • so: ¬Cj if somebody

    • considers it possible that

      • somebody considers it possible that somebody considers it possible that …………. j does not hold


Enemies
Enemies together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

“The message is, that

There are known knowns, there are things we know that we know.

There are known unknowns, that is to say, there are things that we now know, we don’t know.

But there are also unknown unknowns—there are things we do not know we don’t know.

And each year, we discover a few more of those unknown unknowns.’’ Play


Foot in mouth award
Foot in Mouth Award together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

  • “Despite Mr. Rumsfeld’s rather outlandish mode of speaking, fans of the though-talking US defence secretary argue he is misunderstood.”


Knowledge rationality action1
Knowledge, Rationality, Action together in a huge coordinated organization, you’ll get something that has properties on another level. You can see it .... as a system of tendencies and desires and beliefs and so on’’

  • Knowledge

    • about world, other’s knowledge, & rationality

    • uncertainty, beliefs, suspicion

    • dynamic aspects: updating, learning

  • Rationality

    • optimize utilities, do what is best/most economic

  • Action

    • emphasis on choice

    • abilities: physical (robots), computational

    • epistemic actions


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