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Chapter 13. Section 2 Evidence of Evolution. Objectives. Describe how the fossil record supports evolution. Summarize how biological molecules such as proteins and DNA are used as evidence of evolution.

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Objectives

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Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Objectives

  • Describehow the fossil record supports evolution.

  • Summarizehow biological molecules such as proteins and DNA are used as evidence of evolution.

  • Inferhow comparing the anatomy and development of living species provides evidence of evolution.


Paleontologist

Vestigial Structure

Homologous structure

New Vocabulary


  • Evidence that supports the theory of evolution comes from different sources…

    • __________________________

    • __________________________

    • __________________________

fossils

Anatomy and Development

Biological Molecules (Biochemical)


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

The Fossil Record

  • Fossils provide an actual _____________ of Earth’s past life-forms and evidence that indicates _____________ over time

record

changes

Pterodactyl

140-210

million

years ago

Crinoid

800 million

years ago


  • After noticing changes in fossils, Darwin predicted that _____________________ forms between the great groups of organisms would be discovered…

    • While the fossil record is incomplete, some intermediate fossils have been found between…

      • Fishes and _______________________

      • Reptiles and _____________________

      • Reptiles and ___________________________

intermediate

amphibians

mammals

birds


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

  • The fossil record has led most scientists to agree that….

    1. Earth is about 4.5 _______________ years old.

    2. Organisms have inhabited Earth for _______ of its

    history.

    3. All organisms living today share

    _______________ ancestry with earlier, simpler

    life-forms, based on the principle of ____________

billion

most

common

heredity


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Formation of Fossils

  • _______________________ are scientists who study fossils.

  • _________ radiometric dating and relative dating are used to arrange fossils in ______________ from oldest to youngest

Paleontologists

Both

sequence


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Evidence of Whale Evolution

  • For example, whales are thought to have evolved from extinct, four-legged mammals called ____________________

mesonychids


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

survival

  • Fossils indicate that traits helpful for ___________________ may have been passed along


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

flippers

  • Modern whales have forelimbs that are ________________ and hind limbs that have been reduce to only a ________ bones

few


  • The fossil record is incomplete because not all organisms are preserved…

    • For fossils to form, dead organisms must quickly be covered in layers of sediment before they ___________________

    • Fossils also only form in layers of ____________________ rock, which forms at relatively ________ temperatures and pressures

    • _____________________ rock, which forms at _______________ temperatures and pressure, _________________ fossils

decompose

sedimentary

low

metamorphic

higher

destroys


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Anatomy and Development

  • Comparisons of the anatomy of different types of organisms often reveal basic ___________________ in body structures even though the structure’s _____________ may differ slightly between organisms.

  • Similar structures, called ________________ structures, indicate a _______________ ancestry

similarities

function

homologous

common


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Similar bones

  • What is similar about these homologous structures?


reduced

  • Sometimes structures are present in an organism, but are __________________ in size and either have ______ use or a ___________ important function than they did in a previous ancestor…

    Examples…

    • Whale hind limb bones

    • Ostrich wings

    • Human appendix

    • Vestigial snake feet (buds)

no

less

vestigial structures


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Embryonic Development

  • The evolutionary history of organisms is also seen in the development of ______________.

  • At some time in their development, all vertebrate embryos have a __________, _______ that become limbs, and pharyngeal pouches

  • The tail remains in ________ adult vertebrates. Only adult fish and immature amphibians retain pharyngeal pouches which contain their _________.

embryos

tail

buds

most

gills


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Comparing Vertebrate Embryo Development


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Biological Molecules

DNA and Proteins

  • As species evolve, changes should have become a part of their __________________ instructions. Therefore, more and more changes in a gene’s _______________sequence should build up over time.

  • Since DNA codes for the production of _________________

    species that have descended from a recent common ancestor should have _______________ amino acid differences between their proteins than more distant species.

genetic

nucleotide

proteins

less


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Hemoglobin Comparison

Which organism

differs most from humans according to the type of amino acids present in its hemoglobin protein?

lamprey

And the least different from humans?

gorilla


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Objective1

  • Describehow the fossil record supports evolution.

Indicates changes in species over time

We have found intermediate fossils


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Objective2

  • Summarizehow biological molecules such as proteins and DNA are used as evidence of evolution.

Species that have a closer evolutionary

relationship have fewer differences among

their DNA and proteins


Chapter 13

Section 2 Evidence of Evolution

Objective 3

  • Inferhow comparing the anatomy and development of living species provides evidence of evolution.

    • Anatomy

    • Development

Homologous structures indicated a closer

evolutionary relationship

Vestigial structures demonstrate the process of heredity

from a past ancestor

Similar embryonic structures indicate

a closer evolutionary relationship


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