Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan
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KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Bahaya Lingkungan & Kesehatan. Disarikan oleh : soemarno , psdl ppsub nop 2013. Apakah bahaya lingkungan ?. ' Environmental hazard ' is a generic term for any situation or state of events which poses a threat to the surrounding environment.

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Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN:BahayaLingkungan & Kesehatan

Disarikanoleh: soemarno, psdlppsubnop 2013


Apakah bahaya lingkungan

Apakah bahaya lingkungan ?

'Environmental hazard'is a generic term for any situation or state of events which poses a threat to the surrounding environment.

This term incorporates topics like pollution andnatural hazardssuch as storms and earthquakes.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

Sumber: http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/properties/module_4/index.htm…. Diunduh  16/12/2012


Bahaya dan risiko

BAHAYA DAN RISIKO

BAHAYA = Hazard:

Is “a factor or exposure that may adversely affect health” it is a qualitative term expressing the potential of an environmental agent to harm the health of certain individuals if the exposure level is high enough and/or if other conditions apply.

Risiko

Is “the probability that an event will occur, the probability of unfavorable outcome e.g that an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or age. It is the quantitative probability that a health effect will occur after an individual has been exposed to a specified amount of a hazard.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Kontaminasi

KONTAMINASI

Contamination -- Introduction into water, air, and soil of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use.

Also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Pencemaran

PENCEMARAN

Pollutionis the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to theecosystemi.e. physical systems or living organisms.Pollution can take the form ofchemical substances, orenergysuch as noise, heat, or light energy.

Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels.

Pollution is often classed aspoint sourceornonpoint source pollution.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Polutan pencemar

POLUTAN = PENCEMAR

  • A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil.

  • Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant:

    • Sifatkimianya,

    • Konsentrasinya

    • Persistensinya.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

POLUTAN & KONTAMINASI

"Pollution" is generally used when you're talking about something big, like a whole environment, or an entire river, or something else really large.

"Contamination" can refer to very small quantities of something - contaminated food, medicine, drinking water supply; it can also mean a very small amount of foreign or harmful material, such as bacterial contamination, or a toxin, especially when it's not readily visible or noticeable.

For instance, a surgical suite could be contaminated simply because someone walks into it when they're not sterile, and it would be completely invisible.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN BAGI KESEHATAN ?

ANY external factor that negatively affects your health can be considered an environmental health “hazard." Common environmental health hazards include indoor and outdoor air pollution, and contaminated food and water.

Less commonly discussed environmental health hazards include lack of sidewalks, crime, insufficient physical activity, poor nutrition, social isolation, noise, stress, and the lack of aesthetically pleasing living environments.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Jenis bahaya kesehatan lingkungan

BahayaTradisional

Disease Vectors

Infectious agents

Housing and Shelter

Drinking Water & Sanitation

Indoor air Pollution

Dietary Deficiencies

Reproduction

Injury hazards

Bahaya Modern

Tobacco smoking

Alcohol and drugs

Transport hazards

Environmental pollution

Outdoor air pollution

Chemical hazards

Occupational Hazards

Unbalanced Diet

Stress

JENIS BAHAYA KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Jalur masuknya bahaya eh

Jalurmasuknyabahaya EH

  • Inhalation

    • airborne contaminants

  • Absorption

    • penetration through the skin

  • Ingestion

    • eating

    • drinking

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

PAPARAN BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN

  • Acute

    • Short term period between exposure and onset of symptoms

  • Chronic

    • Long time period between exposure to an agent and the onset of symptoms

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

JENIS-JENIS BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

There are five types of environmental hazards:

  • Chemical; Physical; Mechanical; Biological; Psychosocial

The system of environmental health. The human living environment consists of home, work and recreational environments. The interaction between these environments and human activities results in various types of hazards that may adversely affect human health. (Source: adapted from Bassett, 2004)

Sumber: http://labspace.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=452284&extra=thumbnail_id392363134945......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

BAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA

Pesticides; Acids and Bases; Metal fumes ; Solvents; Gases

Sumber:. http://aquaticpath.umd.edu/appliedtox/module1-termin.html.....  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

BAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

BAHAYA BIOLOGIS

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  • Insects; Rodents; Animals

  • Microorganisms:

    • Bacteria

    • Viruses

    • Parasites

    • Yeasts

    • Molds

Biological risk assessment and risk management

Sumber: …. Diunduhdari: http://www.biosafety.be/CU/RA_Fiches/Intro_and_menu.html......  17/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

BAHAYA FISIKA

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

TipeBahayaFisika:

  • Noise and Vibration

  • Ionizing Radiation

  • Non-ionizing Radiation

  • Light, Lasers

  • Pressure

  • Extremes of Temperature

Characteristics of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.

Sumber: gtcceis.anl.gov …. Diunduhdari: ......18/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

BAHAYA PSIKOSOSIAL

Common Signs of Anxiety

Anxiety itself could also be a result of a deeper physiological or psychological cause. That is why the possible manifestations that are associated with anxiety are numerous and can be classified into the specific areas of the body affected. Anxiety is often difficult to identify in a person. Extreme cases present with severe symptoms. This makes stress or anxiety exercises and treatments an essential for anyone going through anxiety attacks.

Read More Here: http://relieveanxietynow.com/common-signs-of-anxiety/

  • Uncertainty

  • Anxiety

  • Lack of feeling of control over one own life

  • Homesickness

  • Isolation

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

APAKAH STRESS ITU?

  • Stress is a human response to stressors

  • Stress is a specific event or situation that causes a mental or psychological reaction.

  • Stress is a process resulting from the interaction between humans and the environment.

  • Stress process consists of 2 stages:

    • Deciding whether or not an event (stressor) poses a hazard

    • Appraising the possibilities of dealing with the situation.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

EFEK STRESS THD KESEHATAN

  • PenyakitKardiovaskular

    • Hypertension

    • Ischemic heart diseases

    • Increase heart rate

  • Peptic ulcer

  • Asma Bronchial

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Bahaya lingkungan yang serius

BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN YANG SERIUS

  • Polutan Udara

    • Indoor air pollutants

    • Outdoor air pollutants

  • Kelangkaan air & Polutan air

  • Bahaya makanan

  • Bahaya rumah hunian

  • Bahaya permukiman

  • Bahaya serangga & Rodents

  • Pestisida

  • Bahaya lingkungan global

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Efek kesehatan akibat pencemaran udara

EFEK KESEHATAN AKIBAT PENCEMARAN UDARA

Climate change and health   Climate change has a range of complex interlinkages with health. These include direct impacts, such as temperature- related illness and death; the health impacts of extreme weather events; the effect of air pollution in the form of spores and moulds.

Sumber: Diunduh dari: http://www.gits4u.com/envo/envo7.htm......  15/12/2012


Bahaya kesehatan yang penting do we face

BAHAYA KESEHATAN YANG PENTING? Do We Face?

The effects of environmental exposures on health depend on the social settings in which the exposures occur and on individual behaviours. Behavioural risk factors are sometimes closely related to physical risk factors (e.g. hygiene is related to sanitation) and modify the health impacts of the physical risk factors. Indeed, the specific contributions of related behavioural and physical risk factors sometimes cannot easily be separated, as for example in the risk factor "water, sanitation and hygiene".

Sumber: https://apps.who.int/peh/burden/9241546204/9241546204chap2.htm.diunduh 15/12/2012


Apakah pencemaran udara

APAKAH PENCEMARAN UDARA?

  • Addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health and quality of life

  • Can occur indoor or outdoor, in cities and across continents and even globally

  • Air pollutants consist of: gaseous pollutants, odors, suspended particle matter (dust, fumes, mist and smoke)

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Polusi udara di dalam ruangan

POLUSI UDARA DI DALAM RUANGAN

  • Indoor air can be defined as any non-industrial indoor space where a person spends a period of an hour or more in any day.

  • This can include the air space in the office, classroom, motor vehicle, shopping centre, hospital and home.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Pencemar udara dalam ruangan

PENCEMAR UDARA DALAM RUANGAN

  • second-hand tobacco smoke;

  • airborne mold and mildew;

  • lead-impregnated dust from old paint cockroach shedding;

  • dust mite particles;

  • combustion gases released by stoves, heaters, candles and fireplaces; chemicals released by

    • dry cleaned clothes;

    • cleaning products;

    • room deodorizers;

    • office supplies;

    • paints and sealers;

    • new furniture and pressed wood;

    • personal care products; and

    • pesticides.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Sumber pencemar indoor

SUMBER PENCEMAR INDOOR

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Pencemar udara outdoor

PENCEMAR UDARA OUTDOOR

  • Ozone (O3)

  • Particulate Matter (PM)

  • Carbon Monoxide (CO(

  • Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

  • Lead (Pb)

  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

  • Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs(

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Sumber pencemar udara

SUMBER PENCEMAR UDARA

  • Transportation (Mobile sources )

    • Motor vehicles, rail, shipping, aviation.

  • Industry sources

    • Power stations, petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing.

  • Power Plants

  • Central heating

  • Incineration of domestic wastes

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Efek kesehatan pencemar udara

EFEK KESEHATAN – PENCEMAR UDARA

  • Irritation of nose, eye, and throat

  • Respiratory diseases (Bronchitis, Asthma, cough, nausea …etc.)

  • Cardiovascular diseases

  • Toxicity (CO)

  • Decrease of pulmonary function and restricted activities)

  • Cancers (Benzene)

  • Neurological impairments, such as seizures, mental retardation, and behavioral disorders (Pb).

  • kidney/liver damage, CNS disorders (Arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and chromium)

  • Increased hospital admissions and ER visits.

  • Premature death

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

EfekPolusithdKesehatan

Polusi Udara

Polusi Air

Bakteri

Parasit

Bahan Kimia

Kontaminasi Tanah

Ozon

Pb

Pestisida

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

EFEK KESEHATAN POLUSI UDARA

Piramida efek kesehatan

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Pengendalian polusi udara

PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA

  • Reduce emissions (conservation and improved efficiency); e.g., refineries

  • Collect, capture, and retain pollutants before entering the atmosphere; e.g., gas stations

  • Regulating automobile exhaust using catalytic converter, control of sulfur dioxide through scrubbing

  • Varied pollutant-control strategies and new and improved technologies

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Risiko biasanya dinyatakan dalam peluang

Risikobiasanyadinyatakandalam “Peluang”

  • Risiko

  • Probability and possibility

  • PendugaanRisiko

  • PengelolaanRisiko

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Pengendalian polusi udara1

PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA

  • Regulatory control

    • Standards (process and emission)

  • Engineering control

    • Ventilation (general and local)

    • Process change

  • Work practice control

  • Administrative control

  • Personnel protective equipment

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Pentingnya kesehatan air

PENTINGNYA KESEHATAN AIR

  • There are 4 billion cases of diarrhea worldwide each year and 2.2 million avoidable deaths-that's a death every 14 seconds.

  • Most diarrheal deaths occur in the Majority World and just being able to wash one's hands with soap and water can reduce diarrhea by 35%.

  • Insect-related diseases Malaria, is the biggest killer, causing 1-2 million deaths a year. At any given time 100 million people suffer from the disease.

  • Parasites Intestinal worms infect about 10% of the majority world population. About 200 million people are affected by schistosomiasis (bilharzia), with 200,000 dying each year.

  • After a peak in the late 1980s, guinea-worm infections have been declining as water sources are better monitored.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Pentingnya kesehatan air1

PENTINGNYA KESEHATAN AIR

  • Every day, diarrheal diseases cause some 6,000 deaths, mostly among children under five: in 2001, 1.96 million people died from infectious diarrheas; 1.3 million were children under five.

  • Diarrheal diseases have killed more children in the past ten years than all the people lost to armed conflict since World War II.

  • Between 1,085,000 and 2,187,000 deaths due to diarrheal diseases can be attributed to the 'water, sanitation and hygiene' risk factor, 90% of them among children under five.

  • With simple hygiene measures such as washing hands after using the toilet or before preparing food, most of these deaths are preventable.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

BAHAYA AIR & EFEK KESEHATAN

  • Biological

  • Chemical

  • physical

Sumber:. Diunduh dari: http://www.idph.state.ia.us/WhatWeDo/Profiles.aspx?category=Environmental%20Hazards......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

Volatile organic compounds

Hydrophobic organic compounds

Endocrine disruptors

Petroleum Additives

Pesticides

Heavy metals

Other inorganic elements

Acids/bases

Oxidants/reductants

Chlorination by-products

Combustion by-products

BAHAN BERBAHAYA DALAM AIR

39

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

PENYAKIT DARI AIR

Typhoid fever ; Giardia ; Dysentery ; Cholera ; Diarrhea (caused by a variety of pathogens) ; Hepatitis ; Polio ; Worms

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

Classification of water-related diseases

Sumber; http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Jwhow01e/2.1.html


Jasad pathogenik

JASAD PATHOGENIK

41

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

JASAD PATHOGENIK

42

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Penyakit yang berhubungan dnegan air

PENYAKIT YANG BERHUBUNGAN DNEGAN AIR

43

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Tingkat penyakit risikonya

TINGKAT PENYAKIT & RISIKONYA

44

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Pendugaan risiko pengelolaan risiko

PENDUGAAN RISIKO & PENGELOLAAN RISIKO

PENDUGAAN RISIKO

PENGELOLAAN RISIKO

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

TINGKAT PENYAKIT & RISIKONYA

Risk Assessment

Risk Management

Identifikasi bahaya

Apa bahaya itu?

Hazard identification

What is the hazard?

Analisis komparatif risiko

Bagaimana dibandingkan dg risiko mlainnya?

Risk reduction

How much should it be reduced?

Probability of risk How likely is the event?

Risk reduction strategy

How will the risk be reduced?

Consequences of risk

What is the likely damage?

Financial commitment

How much money should be spent?

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

Fig. 17-3, p. 440


Kontrol pencemaran air

KONTROL PENCEMARAN AIR

Pencegahan pencemaran

Meminimumkan pencemaran

recycling and re-use; treatment; encourage cleaner production technologies; encourage good housekeeping

Disinfection (Chlorination)

Disposal or discharge of waste water

only under specified conditions; precautionary approach; differentiated approach; polluter pays

47

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Bahaya makanan

BAHAYA MAKANAN

About risk analysis in food

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are in the forefront of the development of risk-based approaches for the management of public health hazards in food.

The approach used is called risk analysis, and is made up of three components:

Risk assessment; Risk management; Risk communication

Sumber: …. Diunduh dari: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/micro/riskanalysis/en/......  15/12/2012


Tipe tipe bahaya makanan

TIPE-TIPE BAHAYA MAKANAN

  • Biologis: bacteria, viruses, parasites

  • Bahan Kimia: heavy metals, natural toxins, sanitizers, pesticides, antibiotics

  • Fisika: bone, rocks, metal

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Bahaya biologis dalam makanan

BAHAYA BIOLOGIS DALAM MAKANAN

Biologis = Organisme hidup

  • Dalam daging dan unggas:

  • Salmonella bacteria (poultry and eggs)

  • Trichinella spiralis parasite (pork)

    On Fruits and Vegetables:

  • E. coli bacteria (apple juice)

  • Cyclospora parasite (raspberries)

  • Hepatitis A virus (strawberries)

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Bahaya biologis dalam makanan1

BAHAYA BIOLOGIS DALAM MAKANAN

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Bahaya biologis dalam makanan2

BAHAYA BIOLOGIS DALAM MAKANAN

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

MENCEGAH BAHAYA BIOLOGIS DALAM MAKANAN

Pencegahan pertumbuhan mikroba

  • Holding at low temperatures (<40oF)

  • Cooling from 140o-40oF quickly

    “Memasak” membantu mematikan mikroba

  • >165oF(73o C) for poultry and eggs

  • >155oF (68o C) for ground beef

  • >160oF (71o C) for pork

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

BAHAYA KIMIA DALAM MAKANAN

Bahaya Kimiawi: a toxic substance that is produced naturally added intentionally or un-intentionally

  • Naturally-occurring:

    • Natural toxins (aflatoxins, marine toxins)

  • Added intentionally:

    • Antibiotics, preservatives

  • Added non-intentionally:

    • Cleaning agents, Pesticide Residues

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

BAHAYA KIMIA DALAM MAKANAN

Bahaya kimia

yang tidak nampak

pada makanan

Bahan kimia pembersih

Residu Pestisida

Residu Veteriner

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

BAHAYA FISIKA DALAM MAKANAN

Bahaya Fisika: a hard foreign object that can cause illness or injury

  • Inherent to the food or ingredient

    • Bone fragment, feathers

  • Contaminant during processing

    • Stones, rocks, dirt, fingernails

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

FAKTOR RISIKO MAKANAN

Lima faktor siriko gangguan penyakit akibat dari makanan:

  • Makanan dari sumber yang tidak aman

  • Waktu dan suhu penyimpanan makanan yang tidak tepat

  • Higienis personal yang buruk

  • Memasak yang tidak tepat

  • Kontaminasi silang.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Sistem kendali makanan

SISTEM KENDALI MAKANAN

  • To guarantee quality and safety of the foods traded at the national and international level;

    • Protecting the health of the consumers and ensuring fair practices in the food trade;

    • Facilitating food trade.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Regulasi makanan

REGULASI MAKANAN

  • Consumer protection, facilitate the production of safe food and fair trade practices.

    • Simple, coherent, transparent, result of process of consensus among the food chain actors.

    • Based on risk assessment through the food chain.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Hazard analysis critical control point haccp

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

  • To monitor and control production processes

  • Identify food safety hazards and critical control points

    • Production, processing and marketing

    • Establish limits

    • Monitor

  • Applied to meat, poultry, and eggs

  • Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


    Pengenalan dan kontrol bahaya di hunian

    PENGENALAN DAN KONTROL BAHAYA DI HUNIAN

    • Determine if personnel have potential occupational exposure to environmental hazards.

    • Obtain training.

    • Voluntarily notify supervisor or OMC of any pre-disposition to environmental hazards that can create medical emergencies.

    • Use personal protective equipment, administrative controls, and engineering controls when exposed to environmental hazards.

    Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


    Mengurangi kontrol bahaya lingkungan

    MENGURANGI / KONTROL BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN

    • Prevent the creation of a hazard in the first place

    • Reduce the amount of hazard brought into being

    • Prevent the release of existing hazard

    • Modify the rate or spatial distribution of release of hazard from its source

    • Separate, in time or in place, the hazard and that which is to be protected.

    • Separate the hazard and that which is to be protected by interaction of a material barrier.

    • Modify the basic qualities of the hazard.

    • Make that which is to be protected more resistant to damage from the hazard

    • Counter damage already done by the environmental hazard

    • Stabilize, repair, and provide rehabilitative corrective measures

    Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


    Kita menghadapi banyak macam bahaya

    Kita menghadapibanyakmacambahaya

    Lima tipe-utamabahayaLingkungan:

    • Biologis: pathogens

    • Kimiawi

    • Fisika

    • Kultural

    • Pilihan Gaya hidup

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Jenis jenis bahaya biologis do we face

    JENIS-JENIS BAHAYA BIOLOGIS Do We Face?

    In terms of death rates, the most serious infectious diseases are flu, AIDS, diarrheal diseases, malaria, and tuberculosis; most of these deaths occur in developing countries.

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Bbrp penyakit dapat menular dari satu orang ke orang lainnya

    Bbrp penyakit dapat menular dari satu orang ke orang lainnya

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    • Nontransmissible disease

    • Infectious disease

    • Transmissible disease (contagious or communicable disease)

    http://www.rims.edu.in/HealthCareCDACKolgksaha/Zoom-%20Infectious%20Diseases%20-%20Ringworm-Jock%20Itch-Worms-Amebas-Malaria.html


    Bbrp penyakit dapat menular dari satu orang ke orang lainnya1

    Bbrp penyakit dapat menular dari satu orang ke orang lainnya

    • Sejak 1950, kematianakibatpenyakitinfeksitelahmenurun, karena :

      • Perawatankesehatanlebihbaik

      • Antibiotika

      • Vaksin

    • Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Penyakit infeksi masih menjadi ancaman utama

    Penyakit infeksi masih menjadi ancaman utama

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    • Penyakitinfeksimenyebarmelalui:

      • Udara

      • Air

      • Makanan

      • Cairantubuh

    • EpidemikdanPandemik

    • Resistensibacteridanserangga

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations.

    Diunduhdari: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2210909910000056?via=sd


    Jalur penyakit infeksi pada manusia

    JALUR PENYAKIT INFEKSI PADA MANUSIA

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Resistensi genetik thd antibiotik

    RESISTENSI GENETIK THD ANTIBIOTIK

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    • Bacteria: rapid reproduction, easily spread

    • Penggunaanantibiotikaygberlebihan

    • Penggunaanpesticida yang berlebih

    Antibiotic Resistance is the adaptation of bacterial strains to certain of the ANTIBIOTIC MEDICATIONS doctors prescribe to treat infections the BACTERIA cause, rendering the antibiotic ineffective.

    Sumber: http://www.beltina.org/health-dictionary/antibiotic-resistance.html _...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Resistensi genetik thd antibiotik1

    RESISTENSI GENETIK THD ANTIBIOTIK

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

      • Resistant to most antibiotics

      • Symptoms of MRSA

      • How will it be controlled?

    Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Sumber: http://www.scq.ubc.ca/attack-of-the-superbugs-antibiotic-resistance/ _...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Ancaman global akibat tuberculosis

    ANCAMAN GLOBAL AKIBAT TUBERCULOSIS

    • Why is tuberculosis on the rise?

      • Not enough screening and control programs

      • Genetic resistance to a majority of effective antibiotics

      • Person-to-person contact has increased

      • AIDS individuals are very susceptible to TB

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Beberapa penyakit virus sangat mematikan

    BEBERAPA PENYAKIT VIRUS SANGAT MEMATIKAN

    • Influenza or flu virus

      • #1 Killer

      • Transmission

    • HIV

      • #2 Killer

      • Antiviral drugs

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Beberapa penyakit virus sangat mematikan1

    BEBERAPA PENYAKIT VIRUS SANGAT MEMATIKAN

    • Global strategy to slow down the spread of HIV

      • Reduce the number of new infections

      • Concentrate on those most likely to spread HIV

      • Free testing

      • Education for prevention

      • Provide free or low-cost drugs

      • Research

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

    BEBERAPA PENYAKIT VIRUS SANGAT MEMATIKAN

    • Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

      • #3 Killer

      • Mode of transmission

    • Viruses that move form animals to humans

      • West Nile virus

      • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    • Reduce chances of infection: Wash your hands

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Penyebaran penyakit infeksi dari binatang ke manusia

    PENYEBARAN PENYAKIT INFEKSI DARI BINATANG KE MANUSIA

    • Ecological medicine

    • Human practices that encourage the spread of diseases from animals to humans

    • Emerging infections

      • HIV

      • SARS

      • West Nile virus

      • Lyme virus

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Malaria oleh nyamuk pembawa parasit

    Malaria— oleh NYAMUK PEMBAWA PARASIT

    Malaria

    • Caused by Plasmodium sp. carried by Anopheles mosquitoes

    • Penyebaran

    • Gejala-gejala

    • Siklus Malarial


    Malaria oleh nyamuk pembawa parasit1

    Malaria— oleh NYAMUK PEMBAWA PARASIT

    • Malaria on the rise since 1970

      • Drug resistant Plasmodium

      • Insecticide resistant mosquitoes

      • Effect of global warming

      • AIDS patients particularly vulnerable

    • Prevention of spread and current research

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Mengurangi penyakit infeksi

    Mengurangi penyakit infeksi

    • Good news

      • Vaccinations on the rise

      • Oral rehydration therapy

    • Bad news

      • More money needed for medical research in developing countries

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

    Solusi: PenyakitInfeksi, Cara-carauntukmencegahataumereduksikejadiannya

    SOLUTIONS

    Infectious Diseases

    Increase research on tropical diseases and vaccines

    Reduce poverty

    Decrease malnutrition

    Improve drinking water quality

    Memperbaikikualitas air minum

    Reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics

    Educate people to take all of an antibiotic prescription

    Mengurangipenggunaanantibiotikdalambudidayaunggas

    Require careful hand washing by all medical personnel

    Immunisasi anak-anak thd penyakit virus

    Provide oral rehydration for diarrhea victims

    Conduct global campaign to reduce HIV/AIDS

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Menghadapi bahan kimia berbahaya

    MENGHADAPI BAHAN KIMIA BERBAHAYA

    Managing the risks of toxic substances is an ongoing, integrated process

    Sumber: http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_cesd_200911_02_e_33197.html_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Beberapa bahan kimia dapat menyebabkan kanker mutasi dan gangguan janin

    BEBERAPA BAHAN KIMIA DAPAT MENYEBABKAN KANKER, MUTASI, DAN GANGGUAN JANIN

    Bahankimiatoksik:

    Carcinogens

    Mutagens

    Teratogens

    Sumber:_http://risk.arizona.edu/healthandsafety/chemicalsafetyinfo/index.shtml...diunduh ….. 15/12/2012


    Pcb ada di berbagai tempat

    PCB ADA DI BERBAGAI TEMPAT

    • Kelompoksenyawakimia yang mengandungkhlor:

      • Sangatstabil

      • Nonflammable

      • Break down slowly in the environment

      • Travel long distances in the air

      • Larutdalamlemak

      • Biomagnifikasi

      • Food chains and webs

    • Banned, but found everywhere

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Potential pathways on which toxic chemicals move through the environment

    Potential Pathways on Which Toxic Chemicals Move Through the Environment

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Bbrpa bahan kimia mempengaruhi sistem immune nervous dan endocrine

    Bbrpa bahan kimia mempengaruhi sistem immune, Nervous, dan Endocrine

    • Hormonally active agents (HAAs)

      • Gender benders

      • Penggangguakelenjar Thyroid

      • BahankimiaToksik

    • Phthlates

    • Efekpadasistem hormonal system

    • Kanker

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Efek toksik akibat merkuri

    EFEK TOKSIK AKIBAT MERKURI

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    • Hg: teratogen and potent neurotoxin

      • Once airborne, persistent and not degradable

      • 1/3 from natural sources

      • 2/3 from human activities

      • Enters the food chain: biomagnification

    Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increase in concentration of a substance that occurs in a food chain as a consequence of:

    Persistence (can't be broken down by environmental processes)

    Food chain energetics

    Low (or nonexistent) rate of internal degradation/excretion of the substance (often due to water-insolubility)

    http://flyfishingconsultant.blogspot.com/2010/07/i-do-not-eat-fish-why-is-that.html


    Efek toksik akibat merkuri1

    EFEK TOKSIK AKIBAT MERKURI

    • 2007: Hg hotspots identified

    • How are humans exposed?

      • Inhalation: vaporized Hg or particulates of inorganic salts

      • Eating fish with high levels of methylmercury

    • Effects of Hg on humans

    • Who is most at risk?

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Siklus merkuri dalam lingkungan akuatik

    Siklusmerkuridalamlingkunganakuatik

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

    PENYELESAIAN PENCEMARAN MERKURI

    SOLUTIONS

    Pencemaran Merkuri

    Pencegahan

    Prevention

    Control

    Kontrol

    Sharply reduce mercury emissions from coal-burning plants and incinerators

    Phase out waste incineration

    Remove mercury from coal before it is burned

    Switch from coal to natural gas and renewable energy resources such as wind, solar cells, and hydrogen

    Tax each unit of mercury emitted by coal-burning plants and incinerators

    Convert coal to liquid or gaseous fuel

    Require labels on all products containing mercury

    Phase out use of mercury in batteries, TVs, compact fluorescent lightbulbs, and all other products unless they are recycled

    Collect and recycle mercury-containing electric switches, relays, and dry-cell batteries

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    Fig. 17-B, p. 451


    Bisphenol a

    Bisphenol A

    • Menyerupai Estrogen

    • Found in many common products

    • Laboratory findings

    • Effects on human health

    • Should it be banned?

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    Diunduhdari: http://www.bisphenol-a.org/pdf/BPAsafe.pdf


    Bagaimana evaluasi dan menangani bahaya kimia

    Bagaimana Evaluasi dan Menangani Bahaya Kimia ?

    Scientists use live laboratory animals, non-animal tests, case reports of poisonings, and epidemiological studies to estimate the toxicity of chemicals, but these methods have limitations.

    Many health scientists call for much greater emphasis on pollution prevention to reduce our exposure to potentially harmful candidates.

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Efek berbahaya dari bahan kimia

    EFEK BERBAHAYA DARI BAHAN KIMIA

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    • Toxicology

    • Toksisitastergantungpada:

      • Dose

      • Age

      • Genetic makeup

      • Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)

      • Kelarutandanpersistensibahankimia

      • Biomagnifikasi

    Diunduhdari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014579308001166


    Kecelakaan kimia

    KECELAKAAN KIMIA

    “Chemical accident" means an accident involving a fortuitous, or sudden or unintended occurrence while handling any hazardous chemicals resulting in continuous, intermittent or repeated exposure to death, or injury to, any person or damage to any property but does not include an accident by reason only of war or radio-activity

    Sumber: http://www.hrdp-idrm.in/e5783/e17327/e27015/e27708/_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Estimasi paparan manusia thd bahan kimia dan mengukur efeknya

    Estimasi Paparan Manusia thd bahan kimia dan mengukur efeknya

    Pengukuran & Pemodelan Ilmiah

    Ramalankandungantoksikdalammanusia

    Metabolisme

    Akumulasi

    Ekskresi

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Studi kasus melindungi anak anak dari bahan kimia toksik

    Studi Kasus: Melindungi anak-anak dari bahan kimia toksik

    • Analysis of umbilical cord blood: significance

    • Infants and children more susceptible to the toxic effects of chemicals than adults

      • Eat, drink water, and breathe more per unit of body weight than adults

      • Put their fingers in their mouths

      • Less well-developed immune systems and body detoxification processes

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Estimasi toksisitas hewan uji di lab dan uji non hewan

    Estimasi toksisitas: Hewan uji di Lab dan Uji non-hewan

    • Dose-response curve: median lethal dose (LD50)

      • Nonthreshold dose-response model

      • Threshold dose-response model

    • Can the data be extrapolated to humans?

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Estimasi toksisitas hewan uji di lab dan uji non hewan1

    Estimasi toksisitas: Hewan uji di Lab dan Uji non-hewan

    • More humane methods using animals

    • Replace animals with other models

      • Computer simulations

      • Tissue culture and individual animal cells

      • Chicken egg membranes

    • What are the effects of mixtures of potentially toxic chemicals?

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Kurva hipotetis dose response untuk menentukan ld50

    Kurva Hipotetis Dose-Response untuk menentukan LD50

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Tingkat toksisitas dan rataan ld untuk manusia

    Tingkat Toksisitas dan Rataan LD untuk manusia

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

    KURVA RESPON DOSIS

    Nonlinear dose-response

    Linear dose- response

    Effect

    Effect

    Threshold level

    Dose

    Dose

    No threshold

    Threshold

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    Fig. 17-15, p. 456


    Estimasi efek berbahaya bahan kimia

    ESTIMASI EFEK BERBAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA

    • Case reports and epidemiological studies

    • Limitations of epidemiological studies

      • Too few people tested

      • Length of time

      • Can you link the result with the chemical?

      • Can not be used for new hazards

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Apa bahaya dosis rendah dari bahan toksik

    APA BAHAYA DOSIS RENDAH DARI BAHAN TOKSIK?

    Acute-based Predicted No-effect Concentrations (PNECacute), as well as two existing EQSs for the pesticides chlorpyrifos and chlorfenvinphos compared to a correlation of observed effects on community structure of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, expressed as SPEAR index (SPEAR[%]) and a measure of toxic stress, calculated as Toxic Units (TU) for the most toxic compound (based on data from von derOhe et al., 2009).

    The two red dots represent sites at which chlorfenvinphos was responsible for the TUmax.

    Sumber: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711001136_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Bahan kimia berbahaya di rumah

    BAHAN KIMIA BERBAHAYA DI RUMAH

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

    Teddy bear

    Shampoo

    Baby bottle

    Clothing

    Perfluorochemicals to add shine

    Some stuffed animals made overseas contain flame retardants and/or pesticides

    Can contain bisphenol-A

    Can contain perfluorochemicals

    Nail polish

    Mattress

    Perfluorochemicals and phthalates

    Flame retardants in stuffing

    Perfume

    Phthalates

    Carpet

    Padding and carpet fibers contain flame retardants, perfluorochemicals, and pesticides

    Hairspray

    Phthalates

    Food

    Some food contains bisphenol-A

    TV

    Wiring and plastic casing contain flame retardants

    Milk

    Fat contains dioxins and flame retardants

    Sofa

    Foam padding contains flame retardants and perfluorochemicals

    Frying pan

    Nonstick coating contains perfluorochemicals

    Computer

    Toys

    Fruit

    Water bottle

    Tennis shoes

    Tile floor

    Imported fruit may contain pesticides banned in the U.S.

    Can contain bisphenol-A

    Flame retardant coatings of plastic casing and wiring

    Vinyl toys contain phthalates

    Can contain phthalates

    Contains perfluorochemicals, phthalates, and pesticides

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    Fig. 17-16, p. 458


    Efek berbahaya dari bahan kimia1

    EFEK BERBAHAYA DARI BAHAN KIMIA

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    • Severe limitations estimating toxicity levels and risks

    • Acceptable levels vary between 1/100 and 1/1000 of the estimated harmful levels

    Diagram illustrating dose response curve for Chemical A

    Diunduhdari: … http://www.stewardshipcommunity.com/?id=339


    Pencegahan polusi prinsip ke hati hatian

    PENCEGAHAN Polusi & Prinsip Ke-hati-hatian

    • Those introducing a new chemical or new technology would have to follow new strategies

      • A new product is considered harmful until it can be proved to be safe

      • Existing chemicals and technologies that appear to cause significant harm must be removed

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    Dose-Effect and Dose-Response

    Since the basic question in toxicology is how dose is related to toxicity, most toxicology studies are designed to investigate how living creatures react as doses vary incrementally, from low to high levels.

    Diunduhdari: http://toxlearn.nlm.nih.gov/htmlversion/module1.html


    Individuals matter ray turner and his refrigerator

    Individuals Matter: Ray Turner and His Refrigerator

    • 1974: Ozone layer being depleted by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    • 1992: International agreement to phase out CFCs and other ozone-destroying chemicals

    • Ray Turner: citrus-based solvents to clean circuit boards

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    The cycle of the ozone depletion and how its shown to be depleted.

    Diunduhdari: http://optioneenvirochemblog1.wordpress.com/2012/03/28/e4-ozone-depletion/


    Risiko dan menghindari bahayanya

    Risiko dan Menghindari Bahayanya

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    We can reduce the major risks we face if we become informed, think critically about risks, and make careful choices.

    The relationship between risk assessment and selection of controls

    Sumber: http://security.practitioner.com/introduction/infosec_5_5.htm ... diunduh 17/12/2012


    Risiko kesehatan datang dari kemiskinan gender dan gaya hidup

    Risiko kesehatan datang-dari Kemiskinan, Gender dan Gaya-hidup

    • AnalisisRisiko

    • RisikoKesehatan “terbesar”:

      • Kemiskinan

      • Gender

      • Pilihan Gaya Hidup

    Analyzing Health Problems for Risk Factors

    Sumber: http://www.uic.edu/sph/prepare/courses/ph420/resources/pt2analysis.htm_...diunduh 17/12/2012


    Ketahanan lingkungan bahaya lingkungan kesehatan

    AnalisisKomparatifRisiko: Problematikekologisdankesehatan

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Bahaya akibat merokok

    BAHAYA AKIBAT MEROKOK

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    • Most preventable major cause of suffering and premature death

    • Nikotin: bahanadetif (tambahan)

    • Efekmerokokpasif (secondhand smoke)

    Secondhand smoke is a complex mixture of gases and particulates containing as many as 4800 chemicals including formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nicotine, carcinogenic tars and others.

    Of the chemicals identified in secondhand smoke, more than 50 have been found to cause cancer.

    Diunduhdari: http://www.whatyoudomatters.org/Substance_Abuse/Tobacco/Secondhand_Smoke.aspx


    Bahaya akibat merokok1

    BAHAYA AKIBAT MEROKOK

    • Bagaimana mengurangi merokok

      • Pajak

      • Ban

      • Klassifikasi dan Regulasi nikotin

      • Pendidikan

    Sumber: http://ginfomation.blogspot.com/2008/09/smohing-hazards-danger-info.html_...diunduh 17/12/2012


    Estimasi risiko dari teknologi hal ini tidak mudah

    Estimasi risiko dari teknologi Hal ini tidak mudah

    Technologies for Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Chemical Substances

    Sumber:. http://www.aist.go.jp/NIRE/eco_tec_e/hyouka_e.htm…………. _...diunduh 15/12/2012


    Banyak orang tidak mengerti bagaimana evaluasi risiko

    Banyak orang tidak mengerti bagaimana Evaluasi Risiko?

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

    • Fear

    • Degree of control

    • Whether a risk is catastrophic

    • Optimism bias

    • Unfair distribution of risks

    Diunduh dari: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1517-83822000000100002&script=sci_arttext ……. 17/12/2012


    Beberapa prinsip evaluasi dan reduksi risiko

    Beberapa prinsip Evaluasi dan Reduksi Risiko

    • Membandingkan Risiko

    • Determine how much you are willing to accept

    • Determine the actual risk involved

    • Concentrate on evaluating and carefully making important lifestyle choices

    Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


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