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Dog Breeds ID. Vet tech. History of dogs. One of the first animals to be domesticated by humans . Modern dogs are most directly descended from the wolf . Ancestory of entire dog family Miacis: small carnivorous animals, lived in trees 40 or 50 million years ago.

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Dog Breeds ID

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Dog Breeds ID

Vet tech

History of dogs

  • One of the first animals to be domesticated by humans.

  • Modern dogs are most directly descended from the wolf.

  • Ancestory of entire dog family

    • Miacis: small carnivorous animals, lived in trees 40 or 50 million years ago.

      • Descendants of Miacis were:

        • Daphaenus-large boned animals w/long tail

        • Hesperocyon: small, coyote-like dogs that spent little time in trees and began to hunt on ground.

        • Tomarctus- directly descended from Hesperocyon


  • Fathers of modern dogs

  • They were built for speed, endurance, and leaping. They are only surpassed in speed by the cheetah.

  • Tomarctus evolved into our modern: dogs, wolves, foxes, coyotes, fennecs, and jackals.

  • Has four major lines or groups classifying the modern dog:

    • Herd dogs

    • Hounds and terriers

    • The Northern and toy dogs

    • Guard dogs

The Sporting Group

  • Develop for hunting and pursuit of game.

  • The Pointer: short-haired, agile, strong, affectionate, and does not require a lot of attention. Earned its name for stance taking in presence of game.

  • German Shorthaired Pointer: versatile dog with extraordinary hunting skills in assorted weather and terrain situations.

  • German Wirehaired Pointer: A crossbreed, with keen nose, hard and bristly hair, intelligent, but with an unfrinedily demeanor towards strangers.

Labrador Retriever

  • From Newfoundland

    • Short coupled, strongly built, very active, with a great sense of smell

    • Active water dog, will go into water in any weather. Has short, thick, water-restinant hair

    • Dependable. Great service dog for blind, search and rescue

Irish Setter

  • Common ancestry to English setter

  • Distinctive red color.

  • Used for hunting all game because of speed, boldness & toughness.

  • Very loyal and lovable. An ideal show dog

    • Slow learners but once they have it, they retain it

American Cocker Spaniel

  • Smallest member of the sporting dog family

  • Name from proficiency hunting woodcock

  • Excellent companion dog. Sensitive and sweet.

  • Other cocker spaniels:

    • The Brittany: more like a setter, a shooting dog, jovial, and great sense of smell

    • The Springer: fastest spaniel and more compact.


  • Developed in 19th century, as a noble hunting dog, often called a gun dog.

    • Hunted big game: wild boar, bear, and deer, later would be used to hunt smaller game: waterfowl, rabbits, and foxes

    • Great at tracking and pointing out game

    • May have black or gray coat

Golden Retriever

  • Developed in Scotland mid 19th century as gun dog for fetching shot game and returning it.

  • Love water and have dense inner coat that keeps them adequate warm in most conditions.

  • Easy to train, need lots of exercise, they have tendency to raom

  • 3rd most popular family dog in United States

  • Used as guide dogs, hearing dogs, detection, as well as search and rescue dogs.

  • Live span 10-12 years

The Hound Group

Two Types

Hunt by scent

Hunt by sight

Afghan Hound

  • Hunt by sight, in packs, they are sure-footed and fast on all terrain.

  • Require lots of grooming and hair care.

Basset Hound

  • From France, great sense of smell for trailing rabbits, deer, raccoons, foxes, and other game.

  • Short-legged with heavy bones, good with children, and affectionate.

  • When hunting Basset hounds have great endurance and determination.

  • May be hard to house-break as pets because they are stubborn at times.


  • One of oldest breeds, actual origin unknown

  • Noted rabbit hunter

    • Cheerful

    • Friendly

    • Excellent pet


  • From 3rd century, used for tracking people

    • Lost children, buried miners, earthquake victims

    • Bloodhounds are Not attack dogs, they are somewhat shy, and sensitive to kindness.

    • Can follow a scent several hours old


  • 15th century, Germany. Used for hunting badgers.Dachs means badger; hund means dog.

    • Three types: short-haired, wired-haired, long-haired

    • Three sizes: normal, miniature, and toy

    • Dachshund are clever, bold, “barkers” and good watch dogs.


  • Ancient breed and favorite of royalty. Hunted all game (deer, wild boar, fox, etc.)

  • Major asset: speed. Greyhound can reach speed of 40 mph.

  • Needs lots of exercise, would survive roaming country by killing small animals.


  • Found 1610 in England, were descendants of greyhounds

  • However because of medium size were deemed unsuitable for hunting big game

    • Trained to hunt rats and rabbits

    • Have few health problems

    • Today are used for dog racing

      • “The poor man’s racehorse”

      • Run at speeds up to 35mph

The Terrier Group

Two Groups



Welsh Terrier

  • Developed to hunt in dens and work in pack with hounds.

  • Today, consider an apartment dog/ watch dog

  • Traits are friendly and outgoing

Cairn Terrier

  • Oldest terrier from Scotland used for hunting burrowing prey

  • Left pawed, which indicates superior sense of smell

  • They shed very little, need daily walks, and live about 12-17 years

  • Toto from was Wizard of Oz, was a Cairn Terrier

Working Dog Group

Guard Dogs, sled dogs, police dogs, rescue dogs, and messenger dogs

Doberman Pinscher

  • Developed in Germany, in 1890 and named after Louis Dobermann.

  • Used as watchdogs, police dogs, war dogs.

  • Male and females have different temperaments.

    • Females are calm but wary of strangers.

    • Males aggressive and need disciplined owner

    • Often live 15 to 20 years

Great Dane

  • Develop in Germany, 1800’s but on hieroglyphics from 3000BC.

  • Used for hunting wild boar and bear because of great size as well as a “battle dog” and watchdog.

  • Traits: spirited, friendly, and dependable.

Great Pyrenees

  • Central Asia or Siberia

  • Guardians to sheppard’s flocks.

  • Great sense of smell & sight

  • Great size & strength

  • Affectionate house pet but needs lots of space, exercise, & grooming

  • Pack dog in ski areas, rescue dogs, messenger dogs in WWI.

  • “Great Dog of the Mountain”


  • Developed in German town of Rottweil.

    • Also known as Drover dogs and used for herding cattle to and from the market

    • Rottweiler are massive, powerful, and very protective of their owners.

    • Obedient, intelligent, and excellent companion dogs.

Saint Bernard

  • Appeared 1660-1670 in the hospice St. Bernard de Menthon.

  • Monks used dogs for companionship and took them on mercy trips

  • Monks discovered Saint Benard’s were excellent pathfinders in drifting snow and sense of smell.

  • Traits- obedient, extremely loyal, and loves the company of humans

Siberian Husky

  • Developed Northeastern Asia, endurance sled dog, then brought to Alaska circa 1909.

    • Dominate Alaska Sweepstake Race for next decade

    • Naturally friendly, independent, and gentle.

    • Lacks aggressive or protective tendencies but can be stubborn and ill-humored around children.


  • Found by Russian, developed in Hungary.

  • Traits- great size, strength, courageous demeanor, heavy white coat of hair.

  • Breed will fight wolves, bears, and other large foes to protect flock.


  • Developed in England, 19th century.

  • Known for size, strength, and loyalty.

  • Rarely bark and are natural guard dogs.

  • 40% Old English Bulldog, 60% English Mastiff

  • Butkus from Rocky movies is a Bullmastiff

Herding Dogs Group

Developed to help with livestock activities

Border Collie

  • Two forms: rough-coated or smooth-coated.

  • Unknown origin, today more of family dog

  • Traits- kind, sensitive, loyal but wary of strangers

  • Versatile animals: rescue dogs, guide dogs for blind, and police dogs.

  • Need frequent brushing to keep hair unknotted.

German Shepherd

  • Several theories to breed creation

    • Cross between various herding and farm dogs

    • Mating between herding and farm dogs with wolves.

    • Courageous, obedient, and loyal

    • Messenger dogs in wars, police dogs, and guides for blind

Old English Sheepdog

  • 19th century, England with unknown ancestry

  • Traits- muscular and steady with the gait like a bear.

  • Great herd dog, sled dog, and retriever

  • Great family dog.

Welsh Corgi

The Cardigan

The Pembroke

Came with Flemish people over English channel to Wales same family as Chow Chow with no dachshund characteristics

Short body , straighter legs, lighter bones, pointed ears and finer textured hair

Easily excited

  • From Wales, same family that produced the Dachshund

  • Ears are rounded, long tail.

  • Both dogs are fast for their sizes, intelligent, and easy to train.

Australian Cattle Dog

  • Breed 19th century in Queensland, Australia for driving cattle long distances, biting or nipping the cattle to keep them in line.

  • Medium sized, very active/high energy, requiring a lot of exercise in two color brown or black.

  • Little maintenance

Australian Shepherd

  • Developed late 19th/early 20th century in the western United States on ranches. Often called “Aussies”

  • Highly trainable, energetic, excellent rescue dogs

  • Known for “smiling” while barring teeth.

Toy Dog Group

Toy because of size

Some as small as 1.5 pounds

Popular as house pets


  • Smallest breed in the world.

  • Develop in 9th century, named after state of Chihuahua in Mexico

    • Oldest breed on the American continent

    • Companion dog noted for energy, courage, affection, and intelligence

    • Chihuahua do not like other dogs

  • Two types:

    • Short-haired

    • Wavy-haired


  • 400 BC., oriental origin from Buddhist monks in Tibet

  • Compact body, very muscular, deeply wrinkled forehead, with tender eyes.

  • Very affectionate, love attention, and children

    • Easily trained and intelligent

Yorkshire Terrier

  • Developed in England for catching rats and vermin

  • Its shiny coat of hair makes it a favorite lapdog

    • Hair needs constant care and care

    • Adults with lots of free time should have these dogs.

Shih Tzu

  • Origin 624 AD, given to Chinese court and bred in the Forbidden City of Peking

    • Shih Tzu means lion

    • Brought to England in 1930 and has a distinctive arrogant walk.

    • Needs daily hair maintenance


  • 19th century, from Mediterranean city of Malta

  • Bred to be cuddly

  • Traits: black button nose and shiny hair

  • Needs constant hair maintenance but little shedding.


  • Developed in 18th century in Pomerania in Central Europe

  • Made popular by royals such as QueenVictoria

  • Pomeranian can be many colors

  • They are sturdy, healthy dogs

  • Nervous, playful, stubborn, and bark a lot

Non-Sporting Dogs

Companion Dogs


  • Origin is of great debate. Depictions have been found in ancient Egypt, Asia, and Africa.

    • Known to not stay in one place for very long (nomadic)

    • Used as war dogs, draft dogs, and herd dogs

      • Great for hunting as bird dogs, trail hounds, and pack hunting wild boar and bear.

      • Used more importantly as carriage or coach dogs

      • Will follow master on foot, horseback, or carriage

      • Dalmatians are calm, loyal, and thrive on human companionship.

Lhasa Apso

  • From Tibet, used as guard dog because of quick hearing and instincts for telling friends from enemies.

  • Easily trained, obedient, and affectionate to owners.


  • Origin Germany, known as Pudel- to splash in the water,

  • The national dog of France

  • Three sizes: standard, miniature, and toy

  • Originally were water dogs or retrievers. Now mostly show-dogs that do circus tricks.

Chow Chow

  • 13th century AD, Northern China

  • Evolved from gray wolf

  • Original teddy bear was modeled off the Chow Chow

  • Not very active but need exercise and shed a lot


  • Developed in Netherlands in 18th century.

  • Medium size, black and silver dog that is agile and obedient

  • Loud distinctive bark

  • Known as a comfort dog and was used at ground zero after9/11

Choosing a Dog

  • Selecting a breed

    • Large or small dog?

    • Active or quiet?

    • What type of hair?

    • What is the purpose of the dog?

      • Hunting, protection, companionship, exercise, showing

    • How much will the dog cost over its entire life?

Choosing a source

  • Buying from friends and neighbors: usually get lovable “mutts”

  • Pet shops: dogs from breeders but most likely from “puppy mills” or “puppy factories”

  • Newspaper, on-line, and national kennel clubs

  • Pure and cross breeders: concerned about reputation and proper placement for animals

Selecting an Individual animal

- Pedigree- ancestry of dog

  • Conformation- look and make-up of dog

    • Standard set by breed association

    • Most puppies should not be taken from mother until they are at least 8 weeks old.

  • Why are you getting dog?

  • What is the cost?

  • What is the pedigree?

  • Is there a history of show winning or field championships?

  • Does it meet conformation standards?

  • Do you want female or male dog?

  • What age do want the dog?

Feeding & Exercise

  • Healthy dogs need an adequate diet and clean water.

    • Puppies, three weeks old, need freshwater all the time

  • Three main types of commercial foods

    • Dry: main ingredients corn, soybean meal, wheat millings, meat, and bone meal.

      • Contains 10% moisture

      • 23% protein, 9% fat, 4% fiber

    • Semi-moist: corn, meat by-products, soybean meal, and corn syrup

      • Contains 30% moisture

      • 25% protein, 16% fat, 8% fiber

    • Canned: Two types

      • Ration-type : barley, meat by-products, wheat grain, and soy flour

        • 30% protein, 16%fat, 8% fiber

      • Meat-type: meat by-products, meat, poultry, and soy flour

        • 44% protein, 32% fat, 4% fiber

      • Contains 75% moisture

  • Dry food are advantageous because of cheap price, convenience, longevity and clean dog’s teeth

  • Feeding different dogs

    • Pregnant Females: weight increases around fourth week. Before giving birth may consume 35-50% more food than usual.

    • Puppies should be weaned from mother by six weeks of age

      • Puppies begin lapping solid foods at week 3 and should feed 3-4 times a day

      • Eggs should be hard-boiled or cooked before fed to dogs. Eggs give dogs shiny coats of hair.

      • Chicken, turkey, and pork bones should never be given to dogs.


    • Do not exercise a dog strenuously within 2 hours of a large meal

    • Take dog to veterinarian often

    • Dogs are like athletes they need to be built up for strenuous activities

    • Signs of fatigue: excessive panting, change in color of lips and face, vacant stare, and change in behavior.


    • 5 basic commands: heel, sit, down, stay, and come

    • Should begin moment puppy arrives at home

      • Learn name, word “no” and praise words “good girl or good boy”

      • Owner’s voice is the best corrective tool

      • Never hit or threaten puppy

      • Puppies should be corrected swiftly

    • House-breaking:

      • Let puppies outside after eating and often throughout day

      • They will associate outside with going to bathroom

      • Paper training, use newspaper to train dogs to go bathroom in certain area, then move newspaper outside

    Serious Training

    • After 6 months, puppies are ready for more intensive training

      • Once or twice a day for roughly 15-30 minutes

      • Equipment for training:

        • Choke collar

        • leash

    Grooming & Care

    • Hair coats- Daily brushing is recommended

      • Long haired dogs should be checked for mats and burrs which can get in hair behind ears and under legs. Can be teased with comb but may need cut out.

    • Bathing- only when extremely dirty.

      • Use mild soap, baby shampoo, or coconut-oil

  • Nails- should be trimmed regularly

    • Outside dogs naturally wear down nails

    • Do not cut nail bed because it will cause bleeding. Bleeding can be stopped through use of styptic pencil

    • Ears- need to be cleaned once a month. Only clean parts of ear that can be seen.

    • Eyes- can be cleaned with boric acid solution or other eyewash solutions.

      • Hunting dogs should have eyes checked after each hunting outing for irritants in their eyes.

    • Teeth- usually don’t decay but do develop plague and tartar leading to periodontal disease (tooth loss)

      • teeth should be cleaned once or twice a week.

      • Chewing keeps teeth clean and sharp.

    • Six common disease afflictions

      • Infectious disease

      • Noninfectious disease

      • Fungus disease

      • Internal parasites

      • External parasites

      • poisonings

    Common diseases

    Early warning signs:




    Watery eyes

    Runny nose


    Loss of appetite


    Loss of weight

    Ravenous eating without gaining weight

    Increased urination


    Straining urinate

    Labored breathing

    Increased water intake



    Obvious pain

    Nervous symptoms

    Infectious Disease

    • Canine distemper

      • Airborne virus that spreads through entire body damaging nervous system

      • Resulting in tremors or full-on epileptic fits which lead permanent nervous damage or death

      • Can be prevented with vaccinations at 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age. Then an annual vaccination afterwards.

    • Canine hepatitis

      • Virus spread dog to dog through urine or salvia in mouth

      • Dogs refuse to eat, body temperature increases, and swelling of head as well as neck occur

      • Dogs either recover or die within 2 weeks

    • Leptospirosis

      • Bacteria affection gotten from swimming in water or consuming food or water contaminated by rodent or other animal urine

      • Early signs: high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration

      • Disease attacks liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract

      • Treatment: antiboitics

    • Canine Parvovirus

      • ingestation of feces from infected dogs

      • Proper cleaning of kennel are essential to control spread of virus, which can exist for many months

    • Kennel Cough

      • Coughing, fever, and pneumonia

      • Usually happen in pet shops, shelters, etc

      • Untreated could damage respiratory system or cause death

    Infectious Disease

    • Rabies: viral disease attacks central nervous system, could cause death

      • found in wildlife and animals such as skunks, raccoons, foxes, and bats

      • “Furious” rabies: act strange, last 2 days, the goes to “mad stage” bites everything in path, foams at mouth, and dies in a few days

      • “Dumb” rabies: paralysis of jaw, and vitals, and then death

    • Coronavirus: virus causing vomiting and diarrhea. Highly contagious and spreads quickly through contaminated feces

    • Canine Brucellosis- world-wide bacterial disease.

      • In female, causes failure to whelp, enlarged lymph nodes, and lead to abortion

      • In males, scrotum swells , testes may atrophy

      • Transmitted through sexual intercourse and no medicine but can be treated with antibiotics

    • Canine herpesvirsus- virus spread through salvia, feces, and urine direct contact and usaully occurs in puppies 5 days- 18 days old leading to death.

    • Psuedorabies- in swine herds and dogs causing intensive itching, self-mutilation to relieve itching, convulsions, coma, death occurs 24-72 hours later.

    Noninfectious Disease

    • Heart Disease- congenital and acquired

      • Moderate regularity in dogs

      • Signs: coughing, fainting, blue gums, panting, and large pendulous abdomen

    • Cataracts-cloudy lens leading to blindness

    • Glaucoma- pressure on eyeball causing irreversible damage to retina & optic nerve

    • Hip dysplasia- too much exercise, excess weight gain, and rapid growth.

      • Pain when rising or moving especially in cold weather

    • Arthritis- degenerate joint disease associated with old age and in large or obese dogs.

    • Tetanus- bacterial disease causing lockjaw, spastic paralysis, and death

    • Botulism- Through eating garage or rotting carcasses. Animal loses total muscle functioning

    Fungus Diseases

    • Ringworm- most common

      • Three fungal organisms

        • Microsporum Canis: direct contact with infected animal

        • Microsporum Gypseum: grows in infected soil

        • Trichophyton Mentagrophytes: found in infected rodents

      • Symptoms:

        • broken hairs around face, ears, or feet.

        • Reddening of skin, skin becomes thick and itchy

        • Creams, lotions, bath dips aide in healing

    Internal Parasites

    • Roundworms- 4 to 8 inches when mature that live in small intestine of dogs less than 6 months old.

      • Caused by in gestation of eggs that hatch in dog’s stomach

      • Dog could be infested with 100 of roundworms, dog’s belly is often potbellied

      • Dogs infected with roundworms should be kept away from children.

    • Hook Worms- blood sucking parasites

      • Once attached to dogs develops into anemia . Gums appear white, and animal appears weak as well as listless.

      • Shedding eggs in dog feces. Can enter dogs through penetrating skin or being ingested in food or water

    • Whip Worms-

      • live in cecum,

      • produce football-shaped eggs pass in feces of infected dogs, and can remain in soil for years.

      • Symptoms watery feces with blood, dehydration, and untreated, death.

    • Tape Worms

      • Flat, segmented worms in small intestine.

      • Segments about the size of grain of rice, and can be seen on surface of feces

      • Not harmful, over –the-counter medicine can treat tape worms

    • Heart Worms

      • Live in heart and major arteries

      • Causes major damage to vital organs

      • Signs: coughing, sluggishness, and labored breathing

      • Transmitted through mosquitos , infection transfers through tissue of body to heart

      • OTC treatment can help heart worm

    External Parasites

    • Fleas- wingless, brown, bloodsucking insects that invade warm bodies.

      • Move fast on skin and usually found on rump as well as groin area

        • Bites and scratches around these areas are signs of flea allergy

      • Eggs, oval, white, and glistening, fall off host and fall in pet’s environment

      • Fleas can develop in as little as 16 days

    • Ticks- bloodsucking arthropod parasites with 4 life stages

      • Hard and soft ticks(leathery, live in ear canal)

        • Hard ticks: hard shields on their back

        • 13 species of hard ticks, Two are very important

          • The Brown Dog tick can survive indoors

            • Attach head to skin. Before removal ticks should be sprayed with insecticide or soaked with alcohol. Tweezers should be used to remove ticks. NOT cigarettes, lighters, gasoline, or kerosene .

          • American Dog tick live in grasses and shrubs

    • Lice- wingless insects, uncommon to dogs

      • Cause severe hair loss, scratching, and rubbing

      • Treatments should be 12 days apart

    • Mites- tiny arachnids parasitic on animals.

      • Mites are problem when their population increases rapidly

      • Localized and generalized forms

        • Local: patchy hair loss on head, forelegs and trunk

        • General: hair loss, reddening, and crusting on entire body.

      • Sarcoptic Mites: contagious burrow into skin (sarcoptic mange & scabies) causing severe itching.

      • Ear Mites:contagious mites found in outer ear and other areas.

        • Feed on wax and other things in ear

        • Symptoms vary, ear drops help but whole body should be treated by flea products


    • Insecticides

    • Plants:

      • poinsettia, Aloe Vera, mistletoe, rhododendrons, azaleas, iris, tulips, and daffodil cause mild intestinal problems

    • Household chemicals

      • Bleach, ammonia, pine oil, etc.

    • Herbicides:

      • used for killing weeds

    • Medications:

      • if taken improperly

    • Metal poisonings

      • Lead poisoningfrom eating paint chips, roofing shingles, or motor oil

    • Antifreeze

      • Sugary taste easily ingested by dogs

  • Treating animals that may or have been poisoned should be immediate

  • Pregnancy

    • Estrus (Heat Period)

      • 6 to 12 months of age.

      • Terriers 6-9 months

      • Larger breeds 2 years of age

      • Occurs intervals of 7 months

    • Pro-estrus

      • lasts about nine days, precursor to Estrus

    • Gestation (pregnancy)

      • Lasts around 63 days

  • Colostrum

    • First milk produced by mother

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