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New team. SLI 2012. Project Diffusion. The effect of gravitational stress on the diffusion of liquids . Part 1A: Vehicle. Major Milestone Schedule. GANTT Chart. Mission Profile Chart. Event 3: Apogee at 17s, 5252ft. Coast. Drogue descent.

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Project Diffusion

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New team

SLI 2012

ProjectDiffusion

The effect of gravitational stress on the diffusion of liquids.


Part 1A: Vehicle


Major Milestone Schedule


GANTT Chart


Mission Profile Chart

Event 3:

Apogee at

17s, 5252ft

Coast

Drogue descent

Apogee prediction updated based on data from scale model flight (Cd=0.48):

5252ft

Event 2:

Burnout at

2.24s, 1000ft

Event 4:

Main parachute deployment at

84s, 700ft

Event 5:

Landing at

110s, 0ft

Event 1:

Ignition at 0s, 0ft


Vehicle Success Criteria

  • Motor ignition

  • Stable flight

  • Altitude of 5,280 feet AGL reached but not exceeded(most current prediction: 5252ft)

  • Both drogue and main parachute deployed

  • Vehicle returns to the ground safely with minimal damage

  • Safe recovery of the booster


Vehicle Drawings

CP 83.1” from nosecone

CG 65.6” from nosecone

Static margin 3.2 calibers

Length 108”

Diameter 5.5”(body tube), 4”(booster)

Liftoff Weight 21.5 lb

Motor Aerotech K1050W


Vehicle Parts


Construction Materials

  • Body:5.5”/4.0” LOC Precision fiber tubing

  • Fins: 1/32” G-10 fiberglass + 1/8” balsa sandwich

  • Couplers: LOC Precision with stiffeners

  • Bulkheads, centering rings: 1/2” plywood

  • Motor mounts: 54mm Kraft phenolic tubing

  • Nosecone: Plastic nose cone

  • Rail buttons: standard nylon rail buttons

  • Motor retention system: Aeropack screw-on motor retainer

  • Anchors: 1/4" stainless steel U-Bolts

  • Epoxy: Locktite epoxy


Motor Selection

  • We selected the AT-K1050W 54mm motor to propel our rocket to but not exceeding an altitude of 5280ft AGL

  • The AT-K1050W motor provides an appropriate thrust to weight ratio for our vehicle (9.8).

Mach delay of 4 seconds will be set on both deployment altimeters


Thrust Curve AT K1050W


Altitude Profile

Apogee at: 5252ft, 17s


Acceleration Profile

Max acceleration:

16 Gees


Velocity Profile

Maximum velocity:

520 mph

Mach number: 0.72


Apogee vs. Wind Speed


Flight Safety Parameters


Ejection Charge Calculations

Wp=dP*V/(R*T)

  • Wp - ejection charge weight [g]

  • dP - ejection pressure (15 [psi])

  • V - free volume [in3]

  • R - universal gas constant (22.16 [ft-lb oR-1 lb-mol-1])

  • T - combustion gas temperature (3,307 [oR])


Calculated Ejection Charges

Charges will be finalized via static ejection tests. Tests carried out with the scale model indicated that average increase of 30% against calculated values may be needed for GOEX 4F powder.


Electrical Schematic


Parachutes


Drift Predictions


Verification Plan

  • Tested Components

  • C1: Body (including construction techniques)

  • C2: Altimeter

  • C3: Accelerometer

  • C4: Parachutes

  • C5: Fins

  • C6: Payload

  • C7: Ejection Charges

  • C8: Launch System

  • C9: Motor Mount

  • C10: Beacons

  • C11: Shock Cords and Anchors

  • C12: Rocket Stability


Verification Plan

  • Verification Tests

  • V1 Integrity Test: force applied; verifies durability.

  • V2 Parachute Drop Test: tests parachute functionality.

  • V3 Tension Test: force applied to shock cords; tests durability.

  • V4 Prototype Flight: tests feasibility of vehicle with scale model.

  • V5 Functionality Test: tests basic functionality of device on ground.

  • V6 Altimeter Ground Test: simulate altitude changes; verifies preset altitude events fire.

  • V7 Electronic Deployment Test: tests that electronics ignite deployment charges.

  • V8 Ejection Test: tests that deployment charges can deploy parachutes/separate components.

  • V9 Computer Simulation: RockSim predicts behavior of launch vehicle.

  • V10 Integration Test: payload fits smoothly and snuggly into vehicle, and withstands flight stresses.


Verification Matrix


Part 1B: Scale Model


Scale Model Launch


Scale Model Launch Objectives

  • Test drogue and main parachute deployment

  • Test flight electronics (altimeters and ejection charges)

  • Test separation of body tubes at ejection

  • Test validity of simulation results

  • Test rocket stability


Scale Model Launch Results

  • Apogee- 2181ft

    • Rocksim prediction 1900ft

Calculated Cd :

0.48

Apogee for full scale vehicle (Cd=0.48): 5252 ft

  • Time to apogee- 13s

  • Apogee events

    • Drogue deployment

  • Main event

    • Main parachute deploys at 700ft

Main parachute deployed at apogee and drogue at 700 ft (wiring error)


Altitude Simulation


Actual Altitude Profile


Scale Model Measured Descent Rate

  • On main parachute (from apogee): 21 ft/s

  • After drogue deployment (700 ft): 21 ft/s

Due to the error in wiring, the main parachute was deployed by the apogee event and drogue parachute by the set-altitude (700ft) event. We have added a test to our preflight routine to prevent this problem from reoccurring.


Lessons Learned


Part II: Payload


Payload Summary

We will investigate the effects of acceleration and vibrations during flight on the diffusion of dye into liquids using digital imaging.


Payload Objectives

  • Determine the effect of acceleration on the diffusion of dye into liquids

  • Determine the effect of vibrations on the diffusion of dye into liquids


Payload Success Criteria

  • Collected data from the camera and accelerometers is accurate

  • Vessels containing liquid do not leak

  • Dye is injected into the liquid correctly

  • Images from camera are received

  • Acceleration is recorded

  • Payload is recovered


Payload Assembly

Syringe

Battery

Sealed Plexiglas vessel

LED

Syringe

Camera

Sealed petri dish

Camera

LED

Battery


Dimensioned Drawing of Payload


Nikon AW100 Camera

  • Selection Rationale

  • Fits inside the payload chamber

  • Waterproof (in case of payload damage)

  • Minimum focus is 1cm (0.4”)

  • Full HD video 1920 x 1080 @ 30fps

  • Sufficient memory/battery capacity

  • Within the budget of our project ($300)

  • Robust design (designed for extreme sports)


Integration of Payload Modules

Bulkhead

Coupler Tube

Rocket Body


Experiment Sequence

Launch and Boost

  • Dye is injected into the solution

  • Camcorder records the diffusion process

The experiment chamber is brightly lit using LEDs to prevent any exposure problems during recording


Experiment Sequence

Coast and Apogee

The camcorder continues to record the diffusion process until the vehicle reaches apogee.

Accelerometer records acceleration data.


Experiment Sequence

Data Analysis

The pictures taken during the flight are analyzed


Controls

  • Preflight ground tests

    • Pictures of Petri dish from overhead camcorder

    • Water tank pictures from side view

Control Group (stationary)

Experimental Group


Variables

  • Independent variables

    a Acceleration

    t Time after dye is released (flight time)

  • Dependent Variables

    R Rate of diffusion (diffusion front speed)

    P Pattern of diffusion (qualitative classification)


Correlations

  • R = f(a) Rate of diffusion in relation to acceleration

  • R = f(t) Rate of diffusion in relation to time after dye isreleased

  • P = f(a) Pattern of diffusion in relation to acceleration

  • P = f(t)Pattern of diffusion in relation to time after dye is released


Test and Measurement


Image Analysis

Voids

Measure color saturation in each pixel

Boundary rectangle: X pixels by Y pixels


Image Analysis

To quantify the results of our experiment, we have selected the following characteristics to measure. Computerized digital image analysis will be used and we expect to process over 7 billion pixels using a multicore Linux machine.


Instrumentation and Measurement

  • We will use commercially available accelerometers and altimeters

  • The sensors will be calibrated

  • We will do extensive testing on the ground prior to the rocket launch


Payload Verification Plan

Tested Components

  • C1: Camera

  • C2: Injection

  • C3: Diffusion Vessel


Verification Plan

Verification Tests

  • V1 Basic Function Test: testing the main functions of the payload

  • V2 Leak Test: verifying that the vessels containing the liquid do not leak

  • V3 Battery Life Test: verifying that the battery life of the camera is long enough to take pictures during the entire diffusion process


Verification Matrix


Questions?


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