Alcohol drugs
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Alcohol & drugs. Effects & Risks to Your Health. STUDENT eXPECTATIONS. After reviewing this Unit, you should be able to: Identify Alcohol’s pathway once ingested Identify the harmful effects & risks of Alcohol on the body

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Alcohol & drugs

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Alcohol drugs

Alcohol & drugs

Effects & Risks to Your Health


Student expectations

STUDENT eXPECTATIONS

After reviewing this Unit, you should be able to:

  • Identify Alcohol’s pathway once ingested

  • Identify the harmful effects & risks of Alcohol on the body

  • Define Blood Alcohol Concentration & factors that determine a person’s BAC

  • Identify the differences between medicines & drugs

  • Identify the differences between drug misuse & abuse

  • Identify the categories of drugs, effects, & risks on the body


Alcohol pre test answers

Alcohol pre-test Answers

  • TRUE – based on percentage of alcohol by volume

  • FALSE – Alcohol is digested by different organs in the body

  • FALSE – Alcohol is a Depressant (slows body down)

  • TRUE

  • TRUE – 5 oz. wine, 1.5 oz. shot of liquor, or 12 oz. can of beer

  • FALSE – BAC/BAL stands for how much alcohol is in the bloodstream

  • FALSE – only way to eliminate alcohol is through urine, sweat, or liver

  • TRUE – depends on a person’s BAC & other factors

  • TRUE –

  • TRUE


Alcohol its process types standard drink

Alcohol: its process, types, & standard drink

  • Alcohol is referred to ethanol & is made through a process called Fermentation – a conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast

  • Fermentation will yield certain types of alcohol such as beer, wine, and liquors (vodka)

  • A “standard” drink is any drink that contains 14 grams of pure alcohol or .6 fluid ounces

    Standard Drink Equivalents:

  • Beer = 12 ounces, Wine = 4-5 ounces, Liquor (80pf) = 1.5 ounces


Alcohol s pathway

Alcohol’s pathway

  • Mouth: Alcohol enters the body

  • Stomach: some alcohol gets into the bloodstream but most goes to the small intestine

  • Small Intestine: alcohol enters the bloodstream through the wall of the small intestine

  • Heart: pumps alcohol throughout the body

  • Brain: alcohol reaches the brain from the bloodstream

  • Liver: alcohol is oxidized (burned up) by the liver at a rate of .5 fluid ounces per hour

  • Alcohol is converted into water, carbon dioxide, & energy


Short long term effects

Short & long-term effects

LONG

Brain – disrupts behavior, learning, & memory

Heart – blood pressure increases – heart disease, heart attack or stroke

Lungs – damage cells of lungs to remove fluids (choking), reduces immune response

Liver – organ responsible for filtering alcohol from the bloodstream

- Cirrhosis = scarring of liver tissue

- Cancer

SHORT

  • Relaxing effect

  • Slurred speech

  • Slowed reaction time, coordination, & concentration ,& vision

  • Altered emotions

  • More blood flow to surface of skin & lower core body temperature


Blood alcohol concentration bac

Blood Alcohol concentration (bac)

  • Ratio of Alcohol to Blood in the body (%)

  • 5 Factors that influence a person’s BAC

  • Gender- stronger effect on females

  • Body Weight- A heavy weight results in more fluids to mix w/alcohol resulting in a lower BAC

  • Strength & Size of Drink- Stronger alcohol content consumed, higher BAC will rise & larger drinks contain more alcohol

  • Food- possible to slow rate in which alcohol is absorbed

  • Time- faster a person drinks, quicker their BAC will rise


Bac level

BAC Level

.01 BAC Level

  • Illegal for a person 16-20 years of age to drive a vehicle

  • All drivers under 21 who commit a DUI can be subject to a 6 month driver’s license suspension, probation, fined, or jailed

.08 BAC Level

  • Illegal for a person 21 or older to drive a vehicle

  • Person is 11 times more likely to be involved in a fatal crash than someone who has had nothing to drink


Medicine vs drugs misuse vs abuse

Medicine vs. Drugs – misuse vs. abuse

Misuse – Inappropriate use of prescribed or non-prescribed medicine, but not for “pleasure” or other non-medical purposes.

Abuse– repeatedly and willfully using a drug in a way other than prescribed or socially sanctioned

Medicine – drug(s) that are used to treat illness or relieve pain (tylenol for a headache)

2 Types:

  • OTC (over the counter) – no need for a written prescription

  • Prescription (Rx) – written order from a doctor (anitbiotics)

    Drugs- chemical substances taken into the body that can change the structure or function of body/mind (increase heart rate or hallucinations)


Categories of drugs

Categories of drugs

Opioids

  • Heroin

    - Injected, smoked, swallowed

    Effects:

  • Impaired coordination, slow/arrested breathing

    Risks:

  • Addiction, fatal overdose, hepatitis, HIV

Cannabinoids

  • Marijuana, Hashish

    -Smoked, swallowed

    Effects:

  • Euphoria, slow reaction time, distorted sensory perception

    Risks:

  • Frequent respiratory infections, cough, addiction, memory loss


Categories of drugs1

Categories of drugs

Club Drugs

  • MDMA (Ecstasy), Rohypnol, GHB

  • Known as Date Rape Drugs

    - Swallowed, snorted, injected

    Effects:

  • Lowered inhibitions, sedation, muscle relaxation, confusion, memory loss

    Risks:

  • Impaired memory, seizures, coma, addiction & at risk to be assaulted

Stimulants

  • Cocaine, Amphetamine, Methamphetamines

    - Inhaled, Injected, taken orally

    Effects:

  • Increases all body functions, i.e., heart rate, breathing rate, anxiety, psychosis

    Risks:

  • Cardiac complications, seizures, nasal damage, dental problems, addiction


Categories of drugs2

Categories of drugs

Anabolic Steroids

  • Man-made substance related to testosterone (HGH)

    - Injected, swallowed, absorbed through skin

    Risks:

    Males – reduced sperm production, breast tissue growth (enlargement), shrunken testicles

    Females – menstrual irregularities, take on male characteristics (deeper voice, hair growth)

Hallucinogens

  • LSD, mushrooms, peyote

    - Swallowed, smoked

    Effects:

  • Increased body temp, blood pressure, heart rate, altered states of perception & feeling

    Risks:

  • Flashbacks (causes brain to misfire & send incorrect signals)


Categories of drugs3

Categories of drugs

Depressants

  • Xanax, Valium

    - Swallowed, injected

    Effects:

  • Slows down body functions

  • Sedation, drowsiness, impaired coordination/memory

    Risks:

  • Decrease in blood pressure, breathing, respiratory arrest, death


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