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Histograms and composites. multimodal is always interesting. qualitative distinction! Regimes or modes (literal meaning). Buoy downwelling radiation along Pacific cold tongue as TIWs go by in the ocean.

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Multimodal is always interesting
multimodal is always interesting

  • qualitative distinction!

  • Regimes or modes (literal meaning)



Figure 3.16 go by in the ocean – Width vs. top height of each EO for 16 June 2006 – 31 May 2008. Distribution is weighted by total number of pixels (volume) per EO to emphasize larger EOs. Bin size is 10 pixels (~ km) by 240 m. Width is the horizontal span of the EO.


Soundings
soundings go by in the ocean


Climatological time means must not be iid sums normal dist
climatological time means go by in the oceanmust not be iid sums (->normal dist)


The science
The science go by in the ocean

  • bimodal = 2 “modes” = distinct “regimes”

    • wet and dry

    • young and old air masses (age since saturation)

      • in temporal variations at a point

    • convective vs. nonconvective regions

      in bimodal climatological mean spatial histograms





Khairoutdinov, Marat, David Randall, 2006: High-Resolution Simulation of Shallow-to-Deep Convection Transition over Land. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 3421–3436.

High-Resolution Simulation of Shallow-to-Deep Convection Transition over Land

Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall

Nice use of 2-dimensional histograms, and weighted histograms (= composites of multiple fields in each bin)

Clouds as connected regions (have a size)


Growing clouds in z and size
growing clouds in z and size Simulation of Shallow-to-Deep Convection Transition over Land. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 3421–3436.


all points Simulation of Shallow-to-Deep Convection Transition over Land. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 3421–3436.

w > 5m/s


  • conditional sampling Simulation of Shallow-to-Deep Convection Transition over Land. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 3421–3436.

  • cetegories so arbitrary unless there are multiple modes in some distribution


Suppose we want precip flux
suppose we want precip flux Simulation of Shallow-to-Deep Convection Transition over Land. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 3421–3436.

  • F = (frequency)(qp)(w)(density)

  • Product of these 3 distributions (*density)

  • rare events clearly important

  • from obs, would need to adjust (sampling)


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