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Eagelson , P.S, 1991 . Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577. All Blue figures in thousands of km 3. ATMOSPHERE. Precip . 12.9. 0.001%. 16%. 84%. 23%. 77%. OCEANS. CONTINENTS. 1,338,000. 47,660. Global Runoff 7%. 97%. 2.999%. +7%. -7%. ATMOSPHERE. 484.7. 12.9. 92.3. 444.3.

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Eagelson , P.S, 1991 .

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Eagelson p s 1991

Eagelson, P.S, 1991.


Eagelson p s 1991

Evap.

ANNUAL

GLOBAL

FLUX

577

All Blue figures

in thousands of

km3.

ATMOSPHERE

Precip.

12.9

0.001%

16%

84%

23%

77%

OCEANS

CONTINENTS

1,338,000

47,660

Global Runoff 7%

97%

2.999%

+7%

-7%


Eagelson p s 1991

ATMOSPHERE

484.7

12.9

92.3

444.3

132.7

OCEANS

CONTINENTS

1,338,000

47,660

40.4


Water balance approach

WATER BALANCE APPROACH

Input = Output +/- Change in Storage

List

List

List


Eagelson p s 1991

WHAT ARE RESIDENCE TIMES?

Input = Output ………. No change in Storage

Volume of Store = 10 balls

Output = 1

ball per time

period

Input = 1 ball

per time

period

?

?

Average number of samplings required


Eagelson p s 1991

CHANGE VOLUME OF STORE

Volume of Store = 20 balls

Output = 1

ball per time

period

Input = 1 ball

per time

period

?

?


Eagelson p s 1991

CHANGE RATES OF INPUT AND OUTPUT

Volume of Store = 10 balls

Output = 2

balls per time

period

Input = 2 balls

per time

period

?

?

?

?


Eagelson p s 1991

2760 yr= 1,338,000,000 (km3)/ 484,680 (km3 yr-1)

Basic time step over which we are completing the accounting.


Eagelson p s 1991

Volume = 47,659,600 km3

Input rate = Precipitation (23%)

Output rate = Evaporation (16%) + Runoff (7%)

Average rate = (23 + (16+7))/2 = 23% of 577,000

132,710 km3 per year

Avg. Residence = 47,659,600 / 132,710 = 359 years


Eagelson p s 1991

Volume = 12,900 km3

Input rate = Evap (oceans) (84%) + Evap (continents) (16%)

Output rate = Prec. (oceans) (77%) + Prec. (continent) (23%)

Average rate = ((84+16) + (77 +23))/2 = 100% of 577,000

577,000 km3 per year

Avg. Residence = 12,900 / 577,000 = 0.02 yrs (7.3 days)


Eagelson p s 1991

GLOBAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RESIDENCE TIMES

2. Rising air cools and vapor condenses, releasing energy to atmosphere and forming clouds. Under the correct conditions, the water drops formed will descend under the influence of gravity (kinetic energy) onto the landscape.

1. Evaporation driven by energy from the Sun, raises water vapor into the atmosphere, renewing the potential energy of the water, and removing most of the dissolved materials inn the water

3. Water moving over and through the landscape uses both its kinetic energy and propensity to dissolves chemicals, to shape the landscape. Rivers, glaciers, caves, groundwater etc.

4. This kinetic and chemical energy given to the water by the Sun, through the process of evaporation is lost once it reaches sea level or some local “datum”, like a lake.


Eagelson p s 1991

WHICH STORES CONSIDERED WHEN?

Unless huge lakes or glaciers present

Time and Space scales of studies usually related. Small area , short time step, large area, along time step

The shorter the smaller the time step (hour, day, month, year) over which you are accounting, the more stores need to be considered


Eagelson p s 1991

IMPACT OF LONG-LASTING STORE

ST. MARY’S RIVER, SW. PIER, MICHIGAN


Eagelson p s 1991

Stow, Lamon, Kratz and Sellinger, 2008. Eos, 89, 41, p. 389-390


Eagelson p s 1991

  • WATER BALANCE EQUATION

  • ON A CONTINENTAL SCALE

  • Input = Output +/- Change in Storage

  • Precipitation = { Evaporation + Runoff } +/ Change in Storage

  • Assume ΔS  0 in Long Run

Source: Shiklomanov (1990)


Eagelson p s 1991

Source: Shiklomanov (1990)


Eagelson p s 1991

Data provided by Mario Mighty


Eagelson p s 1991

MEASURES OF GLOBAL VARIABILITY IN FLOW

.

Coefficient of Variation = standard deviation/mean

Big value represents relatively high variability from year to year (inter-annual variability)

  • Source: McMahon, T. A., B. L. Finlayson, A. T. Haines, and R. Srikanthan,

  • 1992: Global Runoff—Continental Comparisons of Annual

  • Flows and Peak Discharges. Catena Verlag Paperback, 166 pp


Eagelson p s 1991

MEASURES OF GLOBAL VARIABILITY IN FLOW

.

Ratio of the discharge of the biggest flow in a year to the average flow in the entire year.

Big values mean that the biggest flow with in a year (intra-annual) tend to be extremely large in comparison to the other flow

  • Source: McMahon, T. A., B. L. Finlayson, A. T. Haines, and R. Srikanthan,

  • 1992: Global Runoff—Continental Comparisons of Annual

  • Flows and Peak Discharges. Catena Verlag Paperback, 166 pp


Eagelson p s 1991

MEASURES OF GLOBAL VARIABILITY IN FLOW

.

  • Source: McMahon, T. A., B. L. Finlayson, A. T. Haines, and R. Srikanthan,

  • 1992: Global Runoff—Continental Comparisons of Annual

  • Flows and Peak Discharges. Catena Verlag Paperback, 166 pp


Eagelson p s 1991

Higher Mean; Higher Variability

P

R = P - E

Land Use Land Cover

Lower Mean; Lower Variability

Lower Mean; High Variability

E

R


Eagelson p s 1991

Higher ET as trees do not lose leaves


Eagelson p s 1991

Lower ET as trees lose leaves


Eagelson p s 1991

JONGLEI CANAL


Eagelson p s 1991

JONGLEI = DRAINING THE EVERGLADES?

Pielke 2001


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