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Eagelson , P.S, 1991 . Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577. All Blue figures in thousands of km 3. ATMOSPHERE. Precip . 12.9. 0.001%. 16%. 84%. 23%. 77%. OCEANS. CONTINENTS. 1,338,000. 47,660. Global Runoff 7%. 97%. 2.999%. +7%. -7%. ATMOSPHERE. 484.7. 12.9. 92.3. 444.3.

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slide2

Evap.

ANNUAL

GLOBAL

FLUX

577

All Blue figures

in thousands of

km3.

ATMOSPHERE

Precip.

12.9

0.001%

16%

84%

23%

77%

OCEANS

CONTINENTS

1,338,000

47,660

Global Runoff 7%

97%

2.999%

+7%

-7%

slide3

ATMOSPHERE

484.7

12.9

92.3

444.3

132.7

OCEANS

CONTINENTS

1,338,000

47,660

40.4

water balance approach
WATER BALANCE APPROACH

Input = Output +/- Change in Storage

List

List

List

slide5

WHAT ARE RESIDENCE TIMES?

Input = Output ………. No change in Storage

Volume of Store = 10 balls

Output = 1

ball per time

period

Input = 1 ball

per time

period

?

?

Average number of samplings required

slide6

CHANGE VOLUME OF STORE

Volume of Store = 20 balls

Output = 1

ball per time

period

Input = 1 ball

per time

period

?

?

slide7

CHANGE RATES OF INPUT AND OUTPUT

Volume of Store = 10 balls

Output = 2

balls per time

period

Input = 2 balls

per time

period

?

?

?

?

slide8

2760 yr = 1,338,000,000 (km3)/ 484,680 (km3 yr-1)

Basic time step over which we are completing the accounting.

slide9

Volume = 47,659,600 km3

Input rate = Precipitation (23%)

Output rate = Evaporation (16%) + Runoff (7%)

Average rate = (23 + (16+7))/2 = 23% of 577,000

132,710 km3 per year

Avg. Residence = 47,659,600 / 132,710 = 359 years

slide10

Volume = 12,900 km3

Input rate = Evap (oceans) (84%) + Evap (continents) (16%)

Output rate = Prec. (oceans) (77%) + Prec. (continent) (23%)

Average rate = ((84+16) + (77 +23))/2 = 100% of 577,000

577,000 km3 per year

Avg. Residence = 12,900 / 577,000 = 0.02 yrs (7.3 days)

slide11

GLOBAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RESIDENCE TIMES

2. Rising air cools and vapor condenses, releasing energy to atmosphere and forming clouds. Under the correct conditions, the water drops formed will descend under the influence of gravity (kinetic energy) onto the landscape.

1. Evaporation driven by energy from the Sun, raises water vapor into the atmosphere, renewing the potential energy of the water, and removing most of the dissolved materials inn the water

3. Water moving over and through the landscape uses both its kinetic energy and propensity to dissolves chemicals, to shape the landscape. Rivers, glaciers, caves, groundwater etc.

4. This kinetic and chemical energy given to the water by the Sun, through the process of evaporation is lost once it reaches sea level or some local “datum”, like a lake.

slide12

WHICH STORES CONSIDERED WHEN?

Unless huge lakes or glaciers present

Time and Space scales of studies usually related. Small area , short time step, large area, along time step

The shorter the smaller the time step (hour, day, month, year) over which you are accounting, the more stores need to be considered

slide13

IMPACT OF LONG-LASTING STORE

ST. MARY’S RIVER, SW. PIER, MICHIGAN

slide16

WATER BALANCE EQUATION

  • ON A CONTINENTAL SCALE
  • Input = Output +/- Change in Storage
  • Precipitation = { Evaporation + Runoff } +/ Change in Storage
  • Assume ΔS  0 in Long Run

Source: Shiklomanov (1990)

slide19

MEASURES OF GLOBAL VARIABILITY IN FLOW

.

Coefficient of Variation = standard deviation/mean

Big value represents relatively high variability from year to year (inter-annual variability)

  • Source: McMahon, T. A., B. L. Finlayson, A. T. Haines, and R. Srikanthan,
  • 1992: Global Runoff—Continental Comparisons of Annual
  • Flows and Peak Discharges. Catena Verlag Paperback, 166 pp
slide20

MEASURES OF GLOBAL VARIABILITY IN FLOW

.

Ratio of the discharge of the biggest flow in a year to the average flow in the entire year.

Big values mean that the biggest flow with in a year (intra-annual) tend to be extremely large in comparison to the other flow

  • Source: McMahon, T. A., B. L. Finlayson, A. T. Haines, and R. Srikanthan,
  • 1992: Global Runoff—Continental Comparisons of Annual
  • Flows and Peak Discharges. Catena Verlag Paperback, 166 pp
slide21

MEASURES OF GLOBAL VARIABILITY IN FLOW

.

  • Source: McMahon, T. A., B. L. Finlayson, A. T. Haines, and R. Srikanthan,
  • 1992: Global Runoff—Continental Comparisons of Annual
  • Flows and Peak Discharges. Catena Verlag Paperback, 166 pp
slide23

Higher Mean; Higher Variability

P

R = P - E

Land Use Land Cover

Lower Mean; Lower Variability

Lower Mean; High Variability

E

R

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