The development of self complexity as occupational identity and its impact on well being
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The Development of Self-Complexity as Occupational Identity and Its Impact on Well-Being. Oksana Malanchuk Emily Messersmith Stephen C. Peck Jacquelynne S. Eccles University of Michigan. Acknowledgements.

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The development of self complexity as occupational identity and its impact on well being

The Development of Self-Complexity as Occupational Identity and Its Impact on Well-Being

Oksana Malanchuk

Emily Messersmith

Stephen C. Peck

Jacquelynne S. Eccles

University of Michigan


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements and Its Impact on Well-Being

  • We thank the following people for their support of this project (listed alphabetically): Elaine Belansky, Todd Bartko, Heather Bouchey, Nick Butler, Celina Chatman, Diane Early, Kari Fraser, Leslie Gutman, Katie Jodl, Ariel Kalil, Linda Kuhn, Sarah Lord, Karen McCarty, Alice Michael, Melanie Overby, Robert Roeser, Sherri Steele, Erika Taylor, Janice Templeton, Cindy Winston, and Carol Wong

  • Data reported here come from grants to Jacquelynne S. Eccles and Arnold J. Sameroff from the MacArthur Network on Successful Adolescent Development in High Risk Settings (Chair: R. Jessor) and the National Institutes for Child Health and Human Development and to Jacquelynne S. Eccles from the W.T. Grant Foundation.


Overview
Overview and Its Impact on Well-Being

  • What does self-structure complexity look like?

  • How is self-structure complexity related to mental health?


Social psychological perspective
Social Psychological Perspective and Its Impact on Well-Being

  • Individuals are agentic, proactive, and engage in self-regulation of their psychosocial development

  • Self-concept is complex, dynamic, and motivational

    • See Bandura, 1999; Markus and Wurf, 1986


Complexity of self structure
Complexity of Self-Structure and Its Impact on Well-Being

  • Number of dimensions that comprise the self-concept (Linville, 1985)

  • Balance of positive and negative aspects of the self (Oyserman & Markus, 1990)

  • Organization or integration of multiple dimensions (Donahue, Robins, Roberts, & John, 1993)

  • Internal clarity and unity (Campbell, et al., 1996)


Complexity of self structure1
Complexity of Self-Structure and Its Impact on Well-Being

  • Our definition focuses on

    • Clarity

    • Integration


Sample
Sample and Its Impact on Well-Being

  • Ongoing longitudinal study: Maryland Adolescent Development In Context

  • Data collected during 7th grade, 8th grade, 11th grade, 1 year post high school, 3 years post high school

  • Began with almost 1500 participants; almost 900 remain


Demographics
Demographics and Its Impact on Well-Being


Procedure
Procedure and Its Impact on Well-Being

  • Face-to-face open-ended interviews in home (Grades 7, 8, 11)

  • Self-report questionnaire (all Waves)

  • Included questions about self-beliefs, school environment, family relations, romantic relationships, work


Occupational theme
Occupational Theme and Its Impact on Well-Being

  • Most salient occupational goal

  • Grades 7 & 8 coded into broad categories

  • Grade 11 and post high school coded into more specific categories based on 1980 Census


Occupational themes grade 8
Occupational Themes and Its Impact on Well-Being– Grade 8


Occupational themes grade 11
Occupational Themes and Its Impact on Well-Being– Grade 11


Occupational themes 3 years post high school
Occupational Themes and Its Impact on Well-Being– 3 years post high school


Structure of occupational future self
Structure of Occupational Future Self and Its Impact on Well-Being

  • Participants’ responses coded across interview, within each wave

    • Desired jobs

    • Realistic future jobs

    • Wishes & million dollars

    • Heroes & role models

    • Current activities

    • Possible selves & strategies


Vague
Vague and Its Impact on Well-Being

  • This category was only used in 7th and 8th grades

  • Exhibited no occupational goal

  • In later waves, this category was broken into Unresolved and No Real Idea


Example no real idea
Example: and Its Impact on Well-BeingNo Real Idea

  • Job desired at 30: Printing manager

  • Realistic job at 30: “Couldn’t even begin to say”

  • Obstacles: Death, jail

  • Current activity: N/A

  • Role model: N/A


Example unresolved
Example: and Its Impact on Well-BeingUnresolved

  • Job desired at 30: “I have no clue”

  • Realistic job at 30: “I have no clue”

  • Obstacles: None listed

  • Current activity: Studying hard

  • Role model: N/A

  • But… he was very happy to be accepted at and to attend Berkeley


Example conflicting
Example: and Its Impact on Well-BeingConflicting

  • Job desired at 30: Computer technician

  • Realistic job at 30: Computer technician or musician

  • Obstacles: Lack of motivation

  • Current activity: Preparing to take a certification test

  • Wish: Finger strength and speed to be a better guitarist


Example clarified
Example: and Its Impact on Well-BeingClarified

  • Job desired at 30: Famous musician

  • Realistic job at 30: Famous musician

  • Obstacles: Broken hands

  • Current activity: N/A

  • Role model: A famous songwriter

  • Wish: Success in music


Example supported
Example: and Its Impact on Well-Being Supported

  • Job desired at 30: Computer programmer

  • Realistic job at 30: Computer programmer

  • Obstacles: Competitive job market

  • Current activity: Putting effort into current job and college coursework

  • Role model: N/A


Example integrated
Example: and Its Impact on Well-Being Integrated

  • Job desired at 30: Researcher in biomedical engineering

  • Realistic job at 30: Family practice doctor

  • Obstacles: Low grades, low drive, lots of stress

  • Current activity: Looking for internships, studying hard

  • Role model: a mentor who is also a doctor


Structure of occupational future self1
Structure of Occupational Future Self and Its Impact on Well-Being


Structure of occupational future self2
Structure of Occupational Future Self and Its Impact on Well-Being


Structure of occupational future self3
Structure of Occupational Future Self and Its Impact on Well-Being


Occupational structure high socioeconomic status
Occupational Structure: and Its Impact on Well-Being High Socioeconomic Status


Occupational structure mid socioeconomic status
Occupational Structure: and Its Impact on Well-Being Mid Socioeconomic Status


Occupational structure low socioeconomic status
Occupational Structure: and Its Impact on Well-Being Low Socioeconomic Status








Summary self structure
Summary: Self-structure Status

  • Self-Structure

    • Developmental trend toward complexity (clarity) of self-structure

    • More pronounced among high SES


Summary ses
Summary: SES Status

  • SES appears to have some impact in the later years on the organization of the self-structure.

    • Developmental trend

    • Unresolved versus no real idea.

    • Transition period


Complexity and mental health
Complexity and Mental Health Status

  • Linville’s (1985, 1987) self-complexity model

    • Self-complexity moderates the adverse impact of stress on depression and illness

  • Campbell et al.’s (1993; 2003) self-concept clarity

    • Clarity & internal consistency are positively correlated with self-esteem and negatively correlated with neuroticism, anxiety and depression


Occupational identity and mental health
Occupational Identity and Mental Health Status

  • “In general it is primarily the inability to settle on an occupational identity which disturbs young people.”

    --Erikson, 1959, p.92


Mental health measures anger range of alphas 75 to 87
Mental Health Measures: Anger Status(range of alphas = .75 to.87)

During the last month, including today…

  • how often have you felt so angry that you wanted to smash or break something?

  • how often have you felt that you couldn’t control your temper?

  • how often have you felt so upset that you wanted to hit or hurt someone.

    1=almost never 2=once in a while 3=sometimes 4=often 5=almost always


Mental health measures depression range of alphas 77 to 80
Mental Health Measures: Depression Status(range of alphas=.77 to .80)

Please circle the answer that best describes feelings and ideas you have had in the past two weeks. I am sad..

  • 1=once in a while 2=many times 3=all the time

  • I feel like…

    • 1=nothing will ever work out for me 2=I am not sure if things will work out for me 3=things will work out for me O.K.

  • I am worthless…

    • 1=all the time 2=many times 3=once in a while

  • I feel like…

    • 1=I have myself 2=I do not like myself 3=I like myself

  • I feel like crying…

    • 1=every day 2=many days 3=once in a while

  • Things bother me…

    • 1=all the time 2=many times 3=once in a while

      Items were reverse coded before scaling.


  • Mental health measures resilience range of alphas 68 to 74
    Mental Health Measures: Resilience Status(range of alphas = .68 to .74)

    How often are you…

    • very good at figuring out problems nad planning how to solve them?

    • very good at carrying out the plans you make for solving problems?

    • good at learning from you mistakes

    • very good at bouncing back quickly from bad experiences?

      1=almost never 2=once in a while 3=sometimes 4=often 5=almost always


    Mental health measures self esteem range of alphas 73 to 80
    Mental Health Measures: Self-esteem Status(range of alphas = .73 to .80)

    How often…

    • Do you wish you were different than you are? (R)

    • Would you like to change lots of things about you if you could? (R)

    • Are you pretty sure about yourself?

      1=almost never 2=once in a while 3=sometimes 4=often 5=almost always


    7 th grade self structure predicts
    7 Statusth Grade Self-Structure Predicts:


    11 th grade self structure predicts
    11 Statusth grade Self-structure predicts:




    Research question
    Research Question Status

    Is it SES that’s the underlying cause of these mental health indicators and not the complexity of the self-structure?


    7 th grade outcomes
    7 Statusth Grade Outcomes


    8 th grade outcomes
    8 Statusth Grade Outcomes


    11 th grade outcomes
    11 Statusth Grade Outcomes




    Summary mental health
    Summary: Mental Health Status

    • Complexity (clarity) of self-structure has an impact on mental health

      • Early self-structure can predict later mental health

      • Developmental trend

      • SES important only in early years


    Some thoughts
    Some thoughts Status

    Highest levels of complexity are not always optimal.

    Being on-time with developmental tasks leads to better mental health.


    Thank you. Status

    For More Information:

    http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/garp


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