reform movements and utopian societies
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Reform Movements and Utopian Societies. Questions for today: How did 19 th -century Americans seek to improve their society? How were their efforts at odds with one another?. Outline 1) Growing Middle Class 2) Second Great Awakening 3) Middle-class reform: - Temperance

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
Questions for today:

How did 19th-century Americans seek to improve their society?

How were their efforts at odds with one another?

Outline

1) Growing Middle Class

2) Second Great Awakening

3) Middle-class reform:

- Temperance

- Stop prostitution

4) Utopian communities:

New Harmony, Indiana

Brook Farm, Mass.

Oneida, NY

1 growing middle class
1. Growing Middle Class
  • Work ethic: sober, reliable
  • Cult of Domesticity: Women as moral guardians
  • Separate spheres
2 second great awakening charles b finney evangelical preacher
2. Second Great AwakeningCharles B. Finney,Evangelical preacher
  • Perfectionism
  • Conformity through reform
  • Only moral standard: Protestant middle class
3 middle class reform temperance movement
3. Middle Class Reform: Temperance Movement
  • Alcoholism causes domestic violence
  • Techniques of revivalism
successes of temperance movement
Successes of Temperance Movement:
  • Reduced alcohol consumption
  • Helped fight violence against women
  • Women engaged in public activity
crusade against prostitution
Crusade against Prostitution
  • Female Moral Reform Society
  • Attacked the sexual double standard
  • Homes of Refuge
  • Causes: poverty and male demand
1820 1860 wide range of experiments
1820-1860: wide range of experiments
  • Liberal: reform can reduce the worst aspects of capitalism (poverty)
  • Radical: capitalism has flaws that reform cannot fix. A new society is needed.
new harmony indiana
New Harmony, Indiana
  • Cooperation, not competition
  • Full racial equality
  • No marriage. “Free love”
  • Make birth control and divorce available
brook farm mass 1841 1846
Brook Farm, Mass., 1841-1846
  • Both intellectual and manual labor
  • Transcendentalism:
    • Reality above everyday lives
  • Individualism
ralph waldo emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • Mystical unity of nature
  • An original relation to the universe
  • Self-reliance (not organized religion)
henry david thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
  • “To live deliberately”
  • Individualism: a different drummer
  • What is a life well lived?
oneida community ny 1848 1881 john humphrey noyes
Oneida Community, NY, 1848-1881 John Humphrey Noyes
  • Perfectionism
  • Complex marriages
  • Outside the law
  • Strict rules about sex
a vast array of proposals
A vast array of proposals
  • Middle-class values: self-discipline, work
  • Self-determination (free love, no racism)
  • Complete individualism
  • Authoritarian structures
  • Competing assumptions about human nature
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