Introduction to heraldry
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Introduction to Heraldry. Presented by Yehuda ben Moshe, Elmet Herald April 20, 2012. Which one do you root for?. How do you know?. Identification!. Identification!. Evolution of Heraldry. Early devices were simple, designed for rapid identification of opponents.

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Introduction to heraldry

Introduction to Heraldry

Presented by

Yehuda ben Moshe, Elmet Herald

April 20, 2012


Which one do you root for

Which one do you root for?

How do you know?


Identification

Identification!


Identification1

Identification!


Evolution of heraldry

Evolution of Heraldry

  • Early devices were simple, designed for rapid identification of opponents.

Images from the Manesse Codex ca 1305


Evolution of heraldry1

Evolution of Heraldry

  • As warfare and technology evolved, individual identification became less important

  • “Heraldic space” was filling up

  • Heraldry became a perk of the nobility

  • Devices got more complex


Evolution of heraldry2

Evolution of Heraldry

Images from the Armorial of the Order of the Golden Fleece ca 1560


Evolution of heraldry marshalling

Evolution of Heraldry - Marshalling

  • Noble families combined arms to show relationships

  • Armigerous wives combined their devices with those of their husbands

  • Children with two armigerous parents used devices combining those of

  • Three types of marshalling – dimidiation, impalement, quartering


Evolution of heraldry marshalling1

Evolution of Heraldry - Marshalling

Dimidiation

Impaling

Quartering

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Evolution of heraldry marshalling2

Evolution of Heraldry - Marshalling


Evolution of heraldry augmentation

Evolution of Heraldry - Augmentation

  • Individuals were sometimes granted the right to augment their arms

  • Usually a sign of royal favor or recognition of some meritorious act

Thomas Howard

Edward Seymour

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry terminology

Rules of Heraldry - Terminology

  • Emblazon

    • The actual drawing of the device

  • Blazon

    • A verbal description of the device

    • Written in a special language derived from Norman French

    • Follows specific grammar and construction rules


Rules of heraldry terminology1

Rules of Heraldry - Terminology

  • Directions are from the point of view of the person holding the shield

Chief

Dexter

Sinister

Base

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry terminology2

Rules of Heraldry - Terminology

  • Field – base “layer” of the device

    • Lines of division

  • Charges – anything placed on the field (or on top of other charges)

  • Tinctures

    • Colors

    • Metals


Rules of heraldry tinctures

Rules of Heraldry - Tinctures

  • Colors

Gules

Azure

Sable

Vert

Purpure

  • Metals

Argent

Or


Rules of heraldry tinctures1

Rules of Heraldry - Tinctures

  • Rule of tincture – no color on color or metal on metal

  • Assures good contrast and identifiability

Good Contrast

Poor Contrast


Rules of heraldry lines of division

Rules of Heraldry – Lines of Division

  • The field can be divided into multiple sections

  • Field may be divided into 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 or more parts

  • Adjoining sections aren’t required to have good contrast with each other


Rules of heraldry lines of division1

Rules of Heraldry – Lines of Division

  • Divisions into 2 sections

Per Fess

Per Pale

Per Bend

Per Bend

Sinister


Rules of heraldry lines of division2

Rules of Heraldry – Lines of Division

  • Divisions into 2 sections

Per Chevron


Rules of heraldry lines of division3

Rules of Heraldry – Lines of Division

  • Division into 3 sections

Per Chevron


Rules of heraldry lines of division4

Rules of Heraldry – Lines of Division

  • Divisions into 4 sections

Per Saltire

Quarterly


Rules of heraldry ordinaries

Rules of Heraldry – Ordinaries

  • Ordinaries are charges

  • They are usually comprised of simple geometric figures running from side to side or top to bottom of the field

  • Ordinaries can be classified as central or peripheral


Rules of heraldry ordinaries1

Rules of Heraldry – Ordinaries

  • Central ordinaries

a Pale

a Fess

a Bend

a Bend

Sinister

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry ordinaries2

Rules of Heraldry – Ordinaries

  • Central ordinaries

a Cross

a Saltire

a Chevron

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry ordinaries3

Rules of Heraldry – Ordinaries

  • Peripheral ordinaries

a Chief

a Base

a Bordure

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry geometrics

Rules of Heraldry – Geometrics

  • Geometric Charges

Roundels

Annulets

Lozenge

Mascles

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry geometrics1

Rules of Heraldry – Geometrics

  • Geometric Charges

Mullets

voided

Bar Gemel

Pile

Billets

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry animals

Rules of Heraldry – Animals

  • Animals can be drawn in different postures

Lion

Rampant

Lion Statant

Guardant

Lion

Dormant

Two Lions

Combatant

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry animals1

Rules of Heraldry – Animals

  • Animals can be drawn in different postures

Two Fish

Addorsed

(Heraldic) Dolphin

Naiant

Eagle

Displayed

Hart’s head

cabossed

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry charges

Rules of Heraldry – Charges

  • Many other charges - plants

Tree

Fructed

Garb (of Wheat)

Fleur-de-lys

(Heraldic)

Rose

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry charges1

Rules of Heraldry – Charges

  • Many other charges

Maunche

Excarbuncle

Estoile

Sun in his

splendour

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry complex lines

Rules of Heraldry – Complex Lines

  • Lines of division and lines forming ordinaries shown so far were simple, straight lines

  • Such lines can also be complex, using various patterns.


Rules of heraldry complex lines1

Rules of Heraldry – Complex Lines

Embattled

Indented

Wavy

Rayonny

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry complex lines2

Rules of Heraldry – Complex Lines

Invected

Engrailed

Nebuly

Urdy

Images from Wikimedia Commons


Rules of heraldry blazon

Rules of Heraldry – Blazon

  • Blazon utilizes a specific grammar structure

  • Items generally follow the pattern “number, name, posture, tincture”, with tincture always the last

  • We usually blazon from lowest to highest level, from center out, from chief to base, from dexter to sinister


Rules of heraldry blazon1

Rules of Heraldry – Blazon

  • Gules, in pale three lions passant guardant Or

  • Arms of England


Rules of heraldry blazon2

Rules of Heraldry – Blazon

  • Azure, three fleurs-de-lys Or

  • Arms of France


Rules of heraldry blazon3

Rules of Heraldry – Blazon

  • Azure, three fleurs-de-lys Or within a bordure engrailed Gules

  • Arms of the duc de Berry


Rules of heraldry blazon4

Rules of Heraldry – Blazon

  • Azure, on a bend gules between two mermaids argent, three fleurs-de-lys Or

  • Arms of the Chefe Ornelas (Portugal)


Rules of heraldry blazon5

Rules of Heraldry – Blazon

  • Or, five mullets of eight points, two, one, and two gules, within a bordure azure

  • Arms of the Chefe Barbedo (Portugal)


Sca practice

SCA Practice

  • SCA heraldry is based largely on Anglo-Norman tradition

  • Evolved over the years towards greater authenticity

  • The SCA College of Heralds registers devices and names


Sca practice1

SCA Practice

  • Within the SCA, the tradition is that each of us earns our own noble title

  • Therefore, the SCA does not registered marshalled arms

  • Display of two individually registered arms marshalled together is perfectly fine


Resources

Resources

  • http://heraldry.sca.org/ - the main page of the SCA College of Arms

  • http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/armory_articles.html - articles on various aspects of period and SCA heraldry

  • http://www.eastkingdom.org/heraldry/ - East Kingdom College of Heralds

  • http://ech.eastkingdom.org/ - East Kingdom submission information


Resources1

Resources

  • https://lists.andrew.cmu.edu/mailman/listinfo/sca-hrlds - SCA-HRLDS mailing list

  • [email protected] – East Kingdom heraldry mailing list, send blank email to subscribe

  • [email protected] – East Kingdom heraldry education mailing list, send blank email to subscribe


Resources2

Resources

  • Elmet Herald – I am the East Kingdom heraldic education deputy

  • [email protected]


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