Group goals
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GROUP GOALS. Larson & LaFasto (1989) examined government, business, & sports teams. “ In every case, without exception, when an effectively functioning team was identified, it was described by respondents as having a clear understanding of its objective”. Group Goal-Setting.

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GROUP GOALS

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Group goals

GROUP GOALS

  • Larson & LaFasto (1989) examined government, business, & sports teams.

  • “In every case, without exception, when an effectively functioning team was identified, it was described by respondents as having a clear understanding of its objective”.


Group goal setting

Group Goal-Setting

  • Locke & Latham (1990) 93% positive or contingently positive

  • Meta-Analysis (O’Leary-Kelly, et al., 1994) 83% positive, 10% mixed, 7% negative; d = .92


Why do group goals affect performance

Why Do Group Goals Affect Performance?

  • Effort

  • Coordination

  • Planning & Strategy

  • Lack of Conflict


Zander 1995 group goals are more effective if they are

ZANDER(1995) Group goals are more effective if they are:

  • Specific

  • Measurable

  • Feedback

  • Accessible (identifiable paths to goal that are under the group’s control)

  • Moderately Difficult

  • Accepted


Goals

Goals


Issues

Issues

  • Individual or Group Goals?

  • Combining Individual & Group Goals?

  • Individual or Group Feedback?

  • Depends on Task Interdependence.


Pooled independent task savedra 1993

Pooled Independent Task (Savedra, 1993)

Performance Appraisal Task


Pooled independent task

Pooled Independent Task

  • Matsui (1987)

  • Group + Individual Goals 9% Better Than Individual Goals.

  • Feedback led to improved performance for persons who were below either individual or group goals.


Interdependent task savedra 1993

Interdependent Task (Savedra, 1993)

Performance Appraisal Task


Interdependent task mitchell silver tower building

Interdependent Task (Mitchell & Silver, Tower Building)

Blocks


Egocentric vs groupcentric individual goal crown 1993

Egocentric vs Groupcentric Individual Goal (Crown 1993)

  • No Goal (do your best)

  • Egocentric Individual Goal (7 words)

  • Group Goal (5 sentences)

  • Egocentric Individual + Group Goal

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal (17 letters to group sentences)

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal + Group Goal


Group performance sentences

Group Performance (Sentences)

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal & Group Goal (35% higher than No Goal)

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal

  • Group Goal

  • No Goal

  • Egocentric Individual & Group Goal

  • Egocentric Individual goal


Goals feedback should match task demands

Goals & Feedback Should Match Task Demands

  • Savedra (1993) performance appraisal task

  • Pooled (Independent Work Flow) Highest quantity and quality of performance with an individual goal and individual feedback.

  • Team (Interdependent Work Flow) Highest quantity and quality of performance with a group goal and group feedback.


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