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GROUP GOALS. Larson & LaFasto (1989) examined government, business, & sports teams. “ In every case, without exception, when an effectively functioning team was identified, it was described by respondents as having a clear understanding of its objective”. Group Goal-Setting.

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GROUP GOALS

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GROUP GOALS

  • Larson & LaFasto (1989) examined government, business, & sports teams.

  • “In every case, without exception, when an effectively functioning team was identified, it was described by respondents as having a clear understanding of its objective”.


Group Goal-Setting

  • Locke & Latham (1990) 93% positive or contingently positive

  • Meta-Analysis (O’Leary-Kelly, et al., 1994) 83% positive, 10% mixed, 7% negative; d = .92


Why Do Group Goals Affect Performance?

  • Effort

  • Coordination

  • Planning & Strategy

  • Lack of Conflict


ZANDER(1995) Group goals are more effective if they are:

  • Specific

  • Measurable

  • Feedback

  • Accessible (identifiable paths to goal that are under the group’s control)

  • Moderately Difficult

  • Accepted


Goals


Issues

  • Individual or Group Goals?

  • Combining Individual & Group Goals?

  • Individual or Group Feedback?

  • Depends on Task Interdependence.


Pooled Independent Task (Savedra, 1993)

Performance Appraisal Task


Pooled Independent Task

  • Matsui (1987)

  • Group + Individual Goals 9% Better Than Individual Goals.

  • Feedback led to improved performance for persons who were below either individual or group goals.


Interdependent Task (Savedra, 1993)

Performance Appraisal Task


Interdependent Task (Mitchell & Silver, Tower Building)

Blocks


Egocentric vs Groupcentric Individual Goal (Crown 1993)

  • No Goal (do your best)

  • Egocentric Individual Goal (7 words)

  • Group Goal (5 sentences)

  • Egocentric Individual + Group Goal

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal (17 letters to group sentences)

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal + Group Goal


Group Performance (Sentences)

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal & Group Goal (35% higher than No Goal)

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal

  • Group Goal

  • No Goal

  • Egocentric Individual & Group Goal

  • Egocentric Individual goal


Goals & Feedback Should Match Task Demands

  • Savedra (1993) performance appraisal task

  • Pooled (Independent Work Flow) Highest quantity and quality of performance with an individual goal and individual feedback.

  • Team (Interdependent Work Flow) Highest quantity and quality of performance with a group goal and group feedback.


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