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ANDREW JACKSON. Key Concept:. The expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and its gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution. Sectionalism.

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ANDREW JACKSON


Key Concept:

The expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and its gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution.


Sectionalism
Sectionalism

  • After the War of 1812 there was a heightened sense of nationalism bringing the country together.

  • At the same time sectionalism was driving the country apart.

    Sectionalism: loyalty to the interests of your own region or section of the country.


  • The North was loyal to the ideas of the economy based on manufacturing and trade.

The West was mostly interested in transportation of goods and statehood issues.

  • The South was loyal to their reliance on the cotton industry and the use of slave labor.


Missouri applies for statehood
Missouri Applies for Statehood

  • Sectionalism becomes a major issue when Missouri applies for statehood.

  • The people of Missouri wanted to be a slave state.

  • When Missouri applied their were 11 free states and 11 slave states.


Tallmadge amendment
Tallmadge Amendment

  • For months the states argued over admitting Missouri.

  • James Tallmadge of New York proposed in Congress that slavery be banned in Missouri.

  • Angered Southerners argued that the Constitution did not give Congress the right to ban slavery.


Missouri compromise
Missouri Compromise

  • Both sides feared the other side would gain the majority in Congress.

  • The Compromise:

  • Henry Clay who was Speaker of the House suggested that Maine and Missouri be entered into the Union together.

  • This compromise maintained the balance of power in Congress.

  • Slavery will not be permitted North of the Southern border of Missouri.

  • The Missouri Compromise is a temporary fix.


The election of 1824
The Election of 1824

  • In 1824 the peaceful time of politics from the “Era of Good Feelings” had come to an end.

  • Five candidates from the Democratic-Republican Party ran for office.

  • John Quincy Adams was nominated because he was the vice president under Monroe.



The Election and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

  • Jackson won 41% of the popular vote and 99 electoral votes.

  • John Quincy Adams won 30% of the popular vote and 84 electoral votes.

  • Nobody had a electoral majority. The decision had to be left up to Congress by order of the Constitution. 131 electoral votes were needed to win.

  • Henry Clay who had no chance of winning persuaded his supporters to support Adams.


Jacksonian and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew. Democracy

Jackson felt that the election of 1824 had been stolen from him, that the will of the people had been ignored.

For four years the split between the supporters of Jackson and the supporters of Adams grew.

Democrats: supporters of Jackson

Republicans: supporters of Adams


John quincy adams
John Quincy Adams and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

John Quincy Adams was the first president to be photographed in 1843. The photograph was taken after his presidency.


Election of 1828 and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

  • In 1828, Jackson’s Democrats will come out in full force to oppose special privilege that was personified by John Quincy Adams.

  • The campaign was bitter. Adam’s campaign portrayed Jackson as an illiterate, back woodsman, murderer, and adulterer.


Jackson Wins! and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

Jackson 278 electoral votes

Adams 83 electoral votes


Rachel Jackson and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

The election took it’s toll on Rachel Jackson as she became the subject of the mudslinging by the Adam’s campaign.

Claims that she had committed adultery and polygamy were circulated throughout the country.

She died of a heart attack before Jackson was inaugurated.


“To the Victor Belong the Spoils.” and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

Spoils System: the practice of giving government jobs to political supporters.

Jackson opponents charged that this practice was corrupt.

It typically would result in unqualified people holding government office.


A New Political Era and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

As president, Jackson will face three major issues:

The Status of Native Americans.

The Rights of States

The Role of the Bank of the United States.


Rising Sectionalism and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

When Jackson took office the country was being pulled apart by conflicts among its three main sections- The Northeast, the South, and the West.

Legislators were arguing over three economic issues:

The Sale of Public Lands

Internal Improvements

Tariffs


Sale of Public Lands and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

The federal government had acquired land through conquests, treaties, and purchases.

It raised money by selling land to the public. Northerners became concerned that land being sold at such a low rate would cause their workers to move west.

Factory owners could not afford to lose their workers. The government wanted low rates to encourage settlement.


Internal Improvements and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

The issue of internal improvements also pulled the sections apart.

The Northeast and the West approved of government spending on roads and canals.

The South disapproved of spending on transportation because the projects were financed through tariffs.

The South did not want an increase of taxes on imported goods. They were opposed to rising tariffs because their economy relied on foreign trade.


Tariff of Abominations and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

In 1828, during the last months of Adams presidency, Congress passed a bill that raised tariffs significantly.

Southerners were outraged. The had to sell their cotton at a very low rate just to be competitive. They hated the tariff and called it the “Tariff of Abominations”.

Abomination: a hateful thing

The crisis hit South Carolina especially hard because their economy was in a slump.


Crisis Over Nullification and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

The crisis was so serious that some states considered leaving the union.

John C. Calhoun was the Vice President. He understood the problems of the South and proposed a Doctrine of Nullification.

Doctrine of Nullification: each state had a right to nullify, or reject, a federal law that it considered unconstitutional.


The many hairdo’s of and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.calhoun


State’s Rights Debate and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

Calhoun’s idea of nullification was an extreme form of state’s rights.

One of the most famous debates in the history of the United States took place over the issue of state’s rights.

The Webster Hayne Debate took place in 1830


The Webster-Hayne Debate and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

Sen. Daniel Webster[MA]

Sen. Robert Hayne[SC]

  • Webster argued that it was the people and not the states that made the Union.

  • Hayne argued that the doctrine gave the states the right to defend its freedom by not allowing laws that it thought was unconstitutional.

  • Jackson and Calhoun will become bitter enemies over the issue.


South Carolina Threatens to Secede and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

Jackson made it clear that he opposed the Doctrine of Nullification. He did not want to drive the South out of the Union so he asked Congress to reduce the tariff.

Southerners thought the reduced rates were still too high.

South Carolina nullified the tariff acts in 1828 and 1832 and then voted to build its own army.

They began to threaten secession, or withdrawal from the Union.


Jackson’s Reaction and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

Jackson was enraged and vowed to enforce federal laws in South Carolina. He stated:

“I’ll hang the first man of them I can get my hands on.”


Election of 1832 and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

Jackson runs for re-election in 1832 without Calhoun.

After he won he made it clear that he would use force to ensure that federal laws were obeyed.

Henry Clay introduced a compromise tariff in 1833. Congress quickly passed the bill and the crisis ended.


Jackson’s Native American Policy and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

Since the 1600’s, white settlers had pushed Native Americans westward as they took more land.

Some whites hoped that Native Americans would adapt to the white people’s way of life. Others wanted them to keep moving west.

Many people believed that Native Americans were uncivilized and did not want to live near them.

By the 1820’s, only 100,000 Native Americans lived East of the Mississippi.


The American Population Moves West and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.


The Cherokee Nation and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.

More than any other tribe, the Cherokee adopted many white customs, including their way of dressing.

Cherokee owned farms and cattle ranches, and some even owned slaves.

In 1827, the Cherokee drew up their own constitutions and founded the Cherokee Nation.


Gold discovered

One year after the drafting of their constitution, gold was found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

The discovery of gold increased the demand by whites to move the Cherokee.

The government proceeded with a plan to move all Native Americans from the Southeast.

Gold Discovered


Rock a bye baby

Rock-A-Bye Baby found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

Although there is no evidence as to when the lyrics were written, it may date from the seventeenth century and have been written by an English immigrant who observed the way native-American women rocked their babies in birch-bark cradles, which were suspended from the branches of trees, allowing the wind to rock the baby to sleep.[


Jackson s removal policy

Jackson’s Removal Policy found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

Andrew Jackson had long supported the policy of moving Native Americans west of the Mississippi.

He first dealt with the Southern tribes during the war of 1812.

Jackson believed that the government had the right to regulate where Native Americans lived.

After the discovery of gold Georgia and other southern states passed laws that gave them the right to take over Native American lands.

Jackson supported the states.


Indian removal act

Indian Removal Act found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

To solve the problem, Jackson had Congress pass a law that would require all Native Americans to move west or submit to state laws.

The law called for new treaties with Native Americans.

Jackson considered the law “just and liberal”.


Trail of Tears found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.


New treaties

With whites invading their territory found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.many Native Americans felt they had no choice but to sign treaties exchanging their land for land in the west.

Under the treaties the Native Americans would be moved to an area that is now Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska.

New Treaties

Treaty

Land in this territory will be controlled by the following tribes:vnfjdjfdjvmndjdjfhedjfjdjfdjdjdjfdjdjdjdjfdjfjdhsujswurdueyswygfurfsefjsdjhfdjhsujdhsujdjdjsjhdjhsdjsjdjdjsjjdjhfdasklhfdgaoiehrfas;kldjhfasl;dfjsldfjasdlfas jfdlasdjflasdjfasldfjasldkasjdflasdjfasldfjasldfjasldfajsdlfaskdjfasldjfasldfjasdlfkasjdlfasjdflasdjfasldjfasldfjasldfjasdlfasjdflasjdfasldfjasdlfaksjdflasdjfasldfjasdlfaskdjfasldfjasldfjasdlfasdfasdkfajsdlfasjdlfaskjdfalsdjfasldjfasldfkajsdlfkasjflsakdjfsladjfaslkfjaslkdjfioewuaewirgherjgaew;lkgfjasoufaqhwoerjiawoeajeoairjweroaiwjeroaqiweurjaqioweurjwoeirujoewirjfaweofajwflaskjfaslk dalskdjfasldkfjasldfjaslfslsdjsdjsdjsjsdjsdjsjsjsjsjs tribes:vnfjdjfdjvmndjdjfhedjfjdjfdjdjdjfdjdjdjdjfdjfjdhsujswurdueyswygfurfsefjsdjhfdjhsujdhsujdjdjsjhdjhsdjsjdjdjsjjdjhfdasklhfdgaoiehrfas;kldjhfasl;dfjsldfjasdlfas jfdlasdjflasdjfasldfjasldkasjdflasdjfasldfjasldfjasldfajsdlfaskdjfasldjfasldfjasdlfkasjdlfasjdflasdjfasldjfasldfjasldfjasdlfasjdflasjdfasldfjasdlfaksjdflasdjfasldfjasdlfaskdjfasldfjasldfjasdlfasdfasdkfajsdlfasjdlfaskjdfalsdjfasldjfasldfkajsdlfkasjflsakdjfsladjfaslkfjaslkdjfioewuaewirgherjgaew;lkgfjasoufaqhwoerjiawoeajeoairjweroaiwjeroaqiweurjaqioweurjwoeirujoewirjfaweofajwflaskjfaslk dalskdjfasldkfjasldfjaslfslsdjsdjsdjsjsdjsdjsjsjsj


U s supreme court
U.S. Supreme Court found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

The Cherokee appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court to protect their land from being seized by Georgia.

The Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee were not subject to the laws of Georgia and did not have to follow them.

Andrew Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the Supreme Court ruling.


Trail of tears

Trail of Tears found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

In 1838, federal troops rounded up about 16,000 Cherokees and forced them into camps. Soldiers took people from their homes with nothing but the clothes on their backs.

The Cherokee set out for the long journey in the cold, rain, and snow. Many became weak and ill along the way.

One fourth of the people died.


KING ANDREW found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

  • Political cartoons help make complex issues and personalities more accessible.

  • They often have a great impact on the attitudes about a chief executive.

  • In this cartoon, Jackson is portrayed as a strong president who used the office forcefully to pursue his agenda.

  • Many opponents who feared his use of power called him “King Andrew”.


The Second Bank found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

Of

The United States


Mr biddle s bank
Mr. Biddle’s Bank found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

The Second Bank of the United States was the most powerful bank in the country. It was set up by Alexander Hamilton during Washington’s administration.

The bank held government funds and issued money.

Nicholas Biddle was the president of the bank and controlled the money supply.

The bank made loans to Congress and Biddle would openly make comments about how he had influence in Congress. He helped make the rich richer and had too much control over Congress.

Jackson was weary of banks and felt the bank had too much power.


The bank charter
The Bank Charter found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

The bank had to have a Charter, or written grant from the Government, in order to operate. The bank was granted the charter without question year after year.

In 1832, when Congress voted to renew the charter, Jackson vetoed it. Jackson’s actions were supported by his Cabinet.

Jackson stated that the bank was a monopoly that favored the few at the expense of the many.

Jackson’s war on the bank will become the main issue of the Election of 1832.


The bank the election of 1832
The Bank & the Election of 1832 found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

ANDREW JACKSON

  • Jackson denounced the bank as unconstitutional and harmful to state’s rights.

  • Jackson will present himself as the spokesperson of the ordinary man and enemy of special privilege.

  • HENRY CLAY

  • Henry Clay was a candidate set to run against Jackson.

  • A strong national bank was a key element of Clay’s American System. Clay was backed by Nicholas Biddle who had several clashes with Jackson.


Election results
Election Results found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

  • The Democrats successfully paint Clay as the defender of the Bank and of privilege.

  • Jackson acquires 219 electoral votes to Clay’s 49.

  • Jackson will proclaim that the election gave him a popular mandate to act against the bank.


War on the bank

The current charter was not set to expire until 1836. Jackson removed all the federal money into state run banks.

The Cabinet and the Senate objected to Jackson’s move but there was nothing short of impeachment that they could do.

War on the Bank


Biddle fights back
Biddle Fights Back Jackson removed all the federal money into state run banks

  • Biddle fought back by making it difficult to borrow money.

  • Biddle withheld money from the people and cut the money supply. Biddle’s actions caused the American people to side with Jackson.

  • Jackson won the war but the economy would suffer.


Henry clay and the censure
Henry Clay and the Censure Jackson removed all the federal money into state run banks

Censure: severe reprimand by Congress on another person in the government.

*Henry Clay led a move to censure Jackson.



Inflation

Many people prospered after the bank failed because it was easier to get money from the bank in loans.

The rise in the money supply caused the dollar to drop in value.

As a result of this the price of everything rose.

Inflation: the increase of prices and decrease of the value of money.

Inflation


Specie circular
Specie Circular easier to get money from the bank in loans.

Results of the

Specie Circular

  • Jackson was alarmed at the widespread use of paper money which he blamed for causing inflation.

  • Proclamation by Andrew Jackson that stipulated that only gold or silver could be used to purchase public land.

  • Banknotes loose their value.

  • Land sales plummeted.

  • Credit not available.

  • Businesses began to fail.

  • Unemployment rose.


Panic of 1837

Panic of 1837 easier to get money from the bank in loans.

A few months after Van Buren was elected a widespread fear about the nation’s economy spread throughout the country.

People took their paper money to the banks and demanded gold or silver in exchange.

Gold Standard: system in which all currency is backed by gold.


The depression

The Depression easier to get money from the bank in loans.

The country suffered from a severe economic slump.

The depression caused hardship across the nation. People had very little money so manufacturers could not rely on customers to buy their goods.

90% of the factories in the East had to close.

People starved to death and froze to death outside in the winter on the streets.

Reaction from the Government

  • Van Buren disagreed and believed that the economy would improve on its own.

  • Many blamed Van Buren for the panic even though he was only in office for two weeks when it happened.

  • Senators Henry Clay and Daniel Webster argued that the government needed to help the economy.

  • The continued depression made it impossible for him to win the election in 1840.


The whig party

The Whig Party easier to get money from the bank in loans.

Van Buren faced a new political party in the election that had formed when Jackson had declared war on the banks.

The Whig party was named after the British party who opposed royal power.

In 1840, the Whigs chose William Henry Harrison as their candidate.


William henry harrison

Harrison ran with the running mate John Tyler. easier to get money from the bank in loans.

Harrison was nominated because of his military record and was known as “Old Tippecanoe”.

The campaign slogan was:

“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!”

William Henry Harrison


Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 easier to get money from the bank in loans.

1767 - 1845


Trail of tears1

Trail of Tears easier to get money from the bank in loans.


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