ANDREW JACKSON. Key Concept:. The expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and its gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution. Sectionalism.
The expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and its gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution.
Sectionalism: loyalty to the interests of your own region or section of the country.
The West was mostly interested in transportation of goods and statehood issues.
Jackson felt that the election of 1824 had been stolen from him, that the will of the people had been ignored.
For four years the split between the supporters of Jackson and the supporters of Adams grew.
Democrats: supporters of Jackson
Republicans: supporters of Adams
John Quincy Adams was the first president to be photographed in 1843. The photograph was taken after his presidency.
Election of 1828
Jackson 278 electoral votes
Adams 83 electoral votes
The election took it’s toll on Rachel Jackson as she became the subject of the mudslinging by the Adam’s campaign.
Claims that she had committed adultery and polygamy were circulated throughout the country.
She died of a heart attack before Jackson was inaugurated.
“To the Victor Belong the Spoils.”
Spoils System: the practice of giving government jobs to political supporters.
Jackson opponents charged that this practice was corrupt.
It typically would result in unqualified people holding government office.
A New Political Era
As president, Jackson will face three major issues:
The Status of Native Americans.
The Rights of States
The Role of the Bank of the United States.
When Jackson took office the country was being pulled apart by conflicts among its three main sections- The Northeast, the South, and the West.
Legislators were arguing over three economic issues:
The Sale of Public Lands
Sale of Public Lands
The federal government had acquired land through conquests, treaties, and purchases.
It raised money by selling land to the public. Northerners became concerned that land being sold at such a low rate would cause their workers to move west.
Factory owners could not afford to lose their workers. The government wanted low rates to encourage settlement.
The issue of internal improvements also pulled the sections apart.
The Northeast and the West approved of government spending on roads and canals.
The South disapproved of spending on transportation because the projects were financed through tariffs.
The South did not want an increase of taxes on imported goods. They were opposed to rising tariffs because their economy relied on foreign trade.
Tariff of Abominations
In 1828, during the last months of Adams presidency, Congress passed a bill that raised tariffs significantly.
Southerners were outraged. The had to sell their cotton at a very low rate just to be competitive. They hated the tariff and called it the “Tariff of Abominations”.
Abomination: a hateful thing
The crisis hit South Carolina especially hard because their economy was in a slump.
Crisis Over Nullification
The crisis was so serious that some states considered leaving the union.
John C. Calhoun was the Vice President. He understood the problems of the South and proposed a Doctrine of Nullification.
Doctrine of Nullification: each state had a right to nullify, or reject, a federal law that it considered unconstitutional.
The many hairdo’s of calhoun
State’s Rights Debate
Calhoun’s idea of nullification was an extreme form of state’s rights.
One of the most famous debates in the history of the United States took place over the issue of state’s rights.
The Webster Hayne Debate took place in 1830
The Webster-Hayne Debate
Sen. Daniel Webster[MA]
Sen. Robert Hayne[SC]
South Carolina Threatens to Secede
Jackson made it clear that he opposed the Doctrine of Nullification. He did not want to drive the South out of the Union so he asked Congress to reduce the tariff.
Southerners thought the reduced rates were still too high.
South Carolina nullified the tariff acts in 1828 and 1832 and then voted to build its own army.
They began to threaten secession, or withdrawal from the Union.
Jackson was enraged and vowed to enforce federal laws in South Carolina. He stated:
“I’ll hang the first man of them I can get my hands on.”
Election of 1832
Jackson runs for re-election in 1832 without Calhoun.
After he won he made it clear that he would use force to ensure that federal laws were obeyed.
Henry Clay introduced a compromise tariff in 1833. Congress quickly passed the bill and the crisis ended.
Jackson’s Native American Policy
Since the 1600’s, white settlers had pushed Native Americans westward as they took more land.
Some whites hoped that Native Americans would adapt to the white people’s way of life. Others wanted them to keep moving west.
Many people believed that Native Americans were uncivilized and did not want to live near them.
By the 1820’s, only 100,000 Native Americans lived East of the Mississippi.
The American Population Moves West
The Cherokee Nation
More than any other tribe, the Cherokee adopted many white customs, including their way of dressing.
Cherokee owned farms and cattle ranches, and some even owned slaves.
In 1827, the Cherokee drew up their own constitutions and founded the Cherokee Nation.
One year after the drafting of their constitution, gold was found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.
The discovery of gold increased the demand by whites to move the Cherokee.
The government proceeded with a plan to move all Native Americans from the Southeast.
Although there is no evidence as to when the lyrics were written, it may date from the seventeenth century and have been written by an English immigrant who observed the way native-American women rocked their babies in birch-bark cradles, which were suspended from the branches of trees, allowing the wind to rock the baby to sleep.[
Jackson’s Removal Policy
Andrew Jackson had long supported the policy of moving Native Americans west of the Mississippi.
He first dealt with the Southern tribes during the war of 1812.
Jackson believed that the government had the right to regulate where Native Americans lived.
After the discovery of gold Georgia and other southern states passed laws that gave them the right to take over Native American lands.
Jackson supported the states.
Indian Removal Act
To solve the problem, Jackson had Congress pass a law that would require all Native Americans to move west or submit to state laws.
The law called for new treaties with Native Americans.
Jackson considered the law “just and liberal”.
Trail of Tears
With whites invading their territory many Native Americans felt they had no choice but to sign treaties exchanging their land for land in the west.
Under the treaties the Native Americans would be moved to an area that is now Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska.
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The Cherokee appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court to protect their land from being seized by Georgia.
The Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee were not subject to the laws of Georgia and did not have to follow them.
Andrew Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the Supreme Court ruling.
Trail of Tears
In 1838, federal troops rounded up about 16,000 Cherokees and forced them into camps. Soldiers took people from their homes with nothing but the clothes on their backs.
The Cherokee set out for the long journey in the cold, rain, and snow. Many became weak and ill along the way.
One fourth of the people died.
The Second Bank
The United States
The Second Bank of the United States was the most powerful bank in the country. It was set up by Alexander Hamilton during Washington’s administration.
The bank held government funds and issued money.
Nicholas Biddle was the president of the bank and controlled the money supply.
The bank made loans to Congress and Biddle would openly make comments about how he had influence in Congress. He helped make the rich richer and had too much control over Congress.
Jackson was weary of banks and felt the bank had too much power.
The bank had to have a Charter, or written grant from the Government, in order to operate. The bank was granted the charter without question year after year.
In 1832, when Congress voted to renew the charter, Jackson vetoed it. Jackson’s actions were supported by his Cabinet.
Jackson stated that the bank was a monopoly that favored the few at the expense of the many.
Jackson’s war on the bank will become the main issue of the Election of 1832.
The current charter was not set to expire until 1836. Jackson removed all the federal money into state run banks.
The Cabinet and the Senate objected to Jackson’s move but there was nothing short of impeachment that they could do.
Censure: severe reprimand by Congress on another person in the government.
*Henry Clay led a move to censure Jackson.
This cartoon depicts Jackson attacking the bank and its many branches.
Many people prospered after the bank failed because it was easier to get money from the bank in loans.
The rise in the money supply caused the dollar to drop in value.
As a result of this the price of everything rose.
Inflation: the increase of prices and decrease of the value of money.
Results of the
Panic of 1837
A few months after Van Buren was elected a widespread fear about the nation’s economy spread throughout the country.
People took their paper money to the banks and demanded gold or silver in exchange.
Gold Standard: system in which all currency is backed by gold.
The country suffered from a severe economic slump.
The depression caused hardship across the nation. People had very little money so manufacturers could not rely on customers to buy their goods.
90% of the factories in the East had to close.
People starved to death and froze to death outside in the winter on the streets.
Reaction from the Government
The Whig Party
Van Buren faced a new political party in the election that had formed when Jackson had declared war on the banks.
The Whig party was named after the British party who opposed royal power.
In 1840, the Whigs chose William Henry Harrison as their candidate.
Harrison ran with the running mate John Tyler.
Harrison was nominated because of his military record and was known as “Old Tippecanoe”.
The campaign slogan was:
“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!”
William Henry Harrison
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844
1767 - 1845
Trail of Tears