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ION EXCHANGE AND DIALYSIS. THE REMOVAL OF IONS FROM SOLUTION USING RESINS. RESIN PARTICLE AND BEADS. Ion exchange of monovalent cations : (assume y = 1). For most solutions g A =  B. Ion exchange of mixed-valent cations : (assume y = 1).

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Ion exchange and dialysis

ION EXCHANGE AND DIALYSIS

THE REMOVAL OF IONS FROM SOLUTION USING RESINS



Ion exchange of monovalent cations: (assume y = 1)

For most solutions gA = B




Selectivity of ion exchange resins
Selectivity of Ion Exchange Resins

In Order of Decreasing Preference

Strong acid cation Strong base anion

Barium Iodide Lead Nitrate Calcium Bisulfite Nickel Chloride Cadmium Cyanide Copper Bicarbonate Zinc Hydroxide Magnesium Fluoride Potassium Sulfate Ammonia Sodium Hydrogen


Chelating cation resin selectivities for metal
Chelating Cation Resin Selectivities for Metal

Metal KM/Caa Hg+2........................... 2,800 Cu+2........................... 2,300 Pb+2........................... 1,200 Ni+2 .......................... 57 Zn+2........................... 17 Cd+2........................... 15 Co+2....... .................... 6.7 Fe+2............................ 4.7 Mn+2............................ 1.2 Ca+2............................ 1

  • Selectivity coefficient for the metal over calcium ions at a pH of 4


Cost of commercially available resins
Cost of Commercially Available Resins

  • Resin Cost($/ft3) Strong acid cation.......... 45-130 Weak acid cation............ 120-160 Strong base anion........... 210-270 Weak base anion............. 210-260 Chelating cation............ 350-650


SMALL SCALE

ION EXCHANGE

COLUMNS




POSITIONING OF

RESIN BEADS FOR

A MIXED BED JUST

AFTER BACKWASHING


Improved Nitrate

Removal from

Drinking Water

by Ion Exchange:

Testing a

Hydraulic Device

for Improved

Regeneration


IXCalcTMA powerful computer program



America's really big sacred cow is fluoridation of drinking water.  Fact: Fluoride is so toxic that only one milligram constitutes a prescription dose.  In spite of this, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allows up to this amount in a single glass of drinking water.  Fact: Virtually every country in Europe has stopped fluoridation.  Research shows that fluoride confers little if any real benefit.  Fact: Persons who have grown up with fluoridated water have, on the average, only 1/2 of one filling less per lifetime than people who did not drink fluoridated water (Chemical and Engineering News, May 8, 1989).


http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5014a1.htm water.  Fact: Fluoride is so toxic that only one milligram constitutes a prescription dose.  In spite of this, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allows up to this amount in a single glass of drinking water.  Fact: Virtually every country in Europe has stopped fluoridation.  Research shows that fluoride confers little if any real benefit.  Fact: Persons who have grown up with fluoridated water have, on the average, only 1/2 of one filling less per lifetime than people who did not drink fluoridated water (


ELECTRODIALYSIS water.  Fact: Fluoride is so toxic that only one milligram constitutes a prescription dose.  In spite of this, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allows up to this amount in a single glass of drinking water.  Fact: Virtually every country in Europe has stopped fluoridation.  Research shows that fluoride confers little if any real benefit.  Fact: Persons who have grown up with fluoridated water have, on the average, only 1/2 of one filling less per lifetime than people who did not drink fluoridated water (


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