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Standards showcase: MODS, METS, MARCXML ALA Annual 2006. Rebecca Guenther and Jackie Radebaugh Network Development and MARC Standards Office Library of Congress. Overview of presentation. Metadata in general MARC and the XML environment MODS Uses Features Projects METS introduction

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Standards showcase:

MODS, METS, MARCXML

ALA Annual 2006

Rebecca Guenther and Jackie Radebaugh

Network Development and MARC Standards Office

Library of Congress


Overview of presentation l.jpg
Overview of presentation

  • Metadata in general

  • MARC and the XML environment

  • MODS

    • Uses

    • Features

    • Projects

  • METS introduction

  • Examples of METS/MODS use


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XML

“XML has become the de-facto standard for representing metadata descriptions of resources on the Internet.”

Jane Hunter

Working towards MetaUtopia - A Survey of Current Metadata Research


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The importance of standards

“In moving from dispersed digital collections to interoperable digital libraries, the most important activity we need to focus on is standards… most important is the wide variety of metadata standards [including] descriptive metadata… administrative metadata…, structural metadata, and terms and conditions metadata…”

Howard Besser

The Next Stage: Moving from Isolated Digital Collections to Interoperable Digital Libraries


Metadata l.jpg
Metadata

  • Data about data

  • Structured information used to aid identification, description, management and location of resources

  • Also may include physical resources

  • Earliest form: Catalog record


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Why MARC in XML?

  • Importance of descriptive metadata in current environment

  • Large investments in MARC systems

  • Retooling to make use of the flexibility of XML

  • Libraries may receive records using other metadata schemes in XML

  • Collaborative use of metadata for access

    • OAI harvesting

    • SRU (Web service based on Z39.50)


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Evolution of MARC 21

  • Take advantage of XML

    • Establish standard MARC 21 in an XML structure

    • Take advantage of freely available XML tools

  • Develop simpler (but compatible) alternatives

    • MODS

  • Allow for interoperability with different schemas

    • Assemble coordinated set of tools

  • Provide continuity with current data

    • Provide flexible transition options



Marc 21 in xml marcxml l.jpg
MARC 21 in XML – MARCXML

  • MARCXML record

    • XML exact equivalent of MARC (2709) record

    • Lossless/roundtrip conversion to/from MARC 21 record

    • Simple flexible XML schema, no need to change when MARC 21 changes

    • Presentations using XML stylesheets

    • LC provides converters (open source)

  • http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml


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Example: MARC and MARCXML

  • Music record in MARC

  • Music record in MARCXML


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What is MODS?

  • Metadata Object Description Schema

  • Descriptive metadata standard

  • Initiative of Network Development and MARC Standards Office at LC

  • Uses XML Schema language

  • Originally designed for library applications, but may be used for others

  • A derivative of MARC


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Potential Uses of MODS

  • As a rich (but not too rich) XML metadata format for emerging initiatives

    • specified XML format for SRU

    • extension schema to METS

    • to represent metadata for harvesting (OAI)

    • As a core element set for convergence between MARC and non-MARC XML descriptions

  • For original resource description in XML syntax that is simpler than full MARC


Advantages of mods l.jpg
Advantages of MODS

  • Element set is compatible with existing descriptions in large library databases

  • Element set is richer than Dublin Core but simpler than full MARC

  • Language tags are more user-friendly than MARC numeric tags

  • Hierarchy allows for rich description, especially of complex digital objects

  • Rich description that works well with hierarchical METS objects


Features of mods l.jpg
Features of MODS

  • Uses language-based tags

  • Elements have same definitions as equivalent MARC elements

  • Elements are particularly applicable to digital resources

  • MODS does not assume the use of any specific rules for description

  • Element descriptions are reused throughout the schema

  • Use of XML schema allows for flexibility and availability of freely available tools


Mods high level elements l.jpg

Title Info

Name

Type of resource

Genre

Origin Info

Language

Physical description

Abstract

Table of contents

Target audience

Note

Subject

Classification

Related item

Identifier

Location

Access conditions

Part

Extension

Record Info

MODS high-level elements


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Example: MODS

  • Music record in MODS


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Status of MODS

  • Open listserv collaboration of possible implementors, LC coordinated (1st half 2002)

  • First comment and use period: June – December 2002

  • Now in MODS version 3.2

  • Registration approved by National Information Standards Organization (NISO)

  • Companion for authority metadata (MADS) in version 1.0


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LC uses of MODS

  • Describing electronic resources

    • Digital library projects using METS(e.g. LC Presents, Blackmun papers)

    • Archived web sites:

      • Example (HTML)

      • XML

    • NDNP

  • OAI collections

    • LC offers MODS, MARCXML, DC simple


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A selection of MODS projects

  • University of Chicago Library

    • Chopin early editions

    • Finding aid discovery

  • Digital Library Federation Aquifer initiative

  • National Library of Australia

    • MusicAustralia: MODS as exchange format between National Library of Australia and ScreenSoundAustralia

    • Australian national bibliographic database metadata project

  • Many more at MODS Implementation registry http://www.loc.gov/mods/registry.php


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Additional metadata: enter METS

  • Explosion of digital resources requires additional metadata

    • Structural

    • Administrative

    • Preservation

    • Rights

  • Need for packaging metadata and objects together

  • Hierarchical features of MODS and METS work well together


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What is METS? (schema)

METS is an XML Schema designed for the purpose of creating XML documents that express the hierarchical structure of digital library objects, the names and locations of the files that comprise those objects, and the associated metadata.


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What is METS? (document)

  • A unit of storage

  • A transmission format

  • An OAIS information package

  • An “active information source” (application)


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What are some characteristics of METS?

  • METS is:

    • an open standard

    • non-proprietary

    • developed by the library community

    • (relatively) simple

    • extensible

    • modular


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What are the Main Sections of a METS Document?

<mets>

<dmdSec/>

<amdSec/>

<fileSec/>

<structMap/>

</mets>


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Linking in METS Documents(XML ID/IDREF links)

DescMD

mods

relatedItem

relatedItem

AdminMD

techMD

sourceMD

digiprovMD

rightsMD

fileGrp

file

file

StructMap

div

div

fptr

div

fptr


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Linking in METS Documents(XML ID/IDREF links)

DescMD

mods

relatedItem

relatedItem

AdminMD

techMD

sourceMD

digiprovMD

rightsMD

fileGrp

file

file

StructMap

div

div

fptr

div

fptr


Linking in mets documents xml id idref links27 l.jpg
Linking in METS Documents(XML ID/IDREF links)

DescMD

mods

relatedItem

relatedItem

AdminMD

techMD

sourceMD

digiprovMD

rightsMD

fileGrp

file

file

StructMap

div

div

fptr

div

fptr


Linking in mets documents xml id idref links28 l.jpg
Linking in METS Documents(XML ID/IDREF links)

DescMD

mods

relatedItem

relatedItem

AdminMD

techMD

sourceMD

digiprovMD

rightsMD

fileGrp

file

file

StructMap

div

div

fptr

div

fptr


Linking in mets documents xml id idref links29 l.jpg
Linking in METS Documents(XML ID/IDREF links)

DescMD

mods

relatedItem

relatedItem

AdminMD

techMD

sourceMD

digiprovMD

rightsMD

fileGrp

file

file

StructMap

div

div

fptr

div

fptr


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METS extension schemas

  • “wrappers” or “sockets” where elements from other schemas can be plugged in

  • Provides extensibility

  • Uses the XML Schema facility for combining vocabularies from different Namespaces

  • Endorsed extension schemas:

    • Descriptive: MODS, DC, MARCXML

    • Technical metadata: MIX (image); textMD (text)

    • Preservation related: PREMIS


The descriptive metadata section dmdsec l.jpg
The Descriptive Metadata Section (dmdSec)

Two methods: Reference and Wrap

<mets>

<dmdSec></dmdSec>

<fileSec></fileSec>

<structMap></structMap>

</mets>


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Descriptive metadata Section with mdWrap

<mets>

<dmdSec>

<mdWrap>

<xmlData>

<!-- insert data from different namespace here -->

</xmlData>

</mdWrap>

</dmdSec>

<fileSec></fileSec>

<structMap></structMap>

</mets>

Example 4

Example 5

Example 6


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METS/MODS examples

  • Patriotic melodies

  • Recorded event


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For further information

http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods

http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets

http://www.loc.gov/marcxml


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