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U.S. Department of Transportation. Federal Aviation Administration. Jim Cooney. Accident Prevention Specialist Safety Program Manager. Nancy Trudell. Manager Helena Flight Standards District Office The Big Kahuna. Steve Robinson. Billings Flight Service Flight Standards. FAA.

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U.S. Department of Transportation

Federal Aviation Administration

Jim Cooney

  • Accident Prevention Specialist

  • Safety Program Manager

Nancy Trudell

  • Manager Helena Flight Standards District Office

  • The Big Kahuna

Steve Robinson

  • Billings Flight Service

  • Flight Standards


  • Federal

  • Acronym

  • Association


  • Friendly

  • Aviation

  • Agency

Orville Moore

  • Moore Quality Flying Service

  • Safety Program Counselor

Form1040EZ Income Tax Return 1995Name &AddressL A Print your name above (first, initial, last)BE Home address (no and street) apt no L City, town or post office, state and ZIP code

  • Report Your Income1. How much did you make last year?1.

  • Figureyour Tax 2. How much do you have left?2.

  • 3. Send it to us!3.

  • Sign your signaturedateyourreturn X

  • 2 Essentials of Flight

  • Lift

  • Money

Federal Aviation RegulationsA REVIEW OF

FAR PART 61 & 91

Airspace Reclassification

  • Positive Control Airspace Class A

  • Terminal Control Area Class B

  • Airport Radar Service Area Class C

  • Airport Traffic Area-Control ZoneClass D

  • Controlled Airspace Class E

  • Uncontrolled Airspace Class G

FAR 91.155Basic VFR Weather Minimums



Cloud Clearance

Class A

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Class B

3 statute miles

Clear of Clouds

Class C & D

3 statute miles

500 feet below

1000 feet above

2000 feet horizontal

Class E

below 10k



10k & above

5 statute miles

1000 feet below

1000 feet above

2000 feet horizontal

FAR 91.155 cont.



Cloud Clearance

Class G

Day 1200 ft. or less 1 statute mile Clear of clouds

Night 1200 ft or less 3 statute miles 500 ft. below

1000 ft. above

2000 ft. horizontal

Day 1200 ft. to 10,000 1 statute mile 500 ft. below

1000 ft above

2000 ft. horizontal

Night 1200 to 10,000 3 statute miles 500 ft. below

1000 ft.above

2000 ft. horizontal

More than 1200 and 5 statute miles 1000 ft. below and above 10,000 1000 ft. above 1 mile horizontal

FAR 61.3Required Certificates

  • (a) Pilot certificate - in personal possession

  • (c) Appropriate and current medical certificate - in personal possession

  • (e) Instrument rating - when conditions are less than minimums for VFR flight

  • (h) Inspection of certificate - upon request

FAR 61.14Drug or Alcohol Test

(b) Refusal, Grounds forSuspension or Revocation

61.31 High Performance Aircraft

  • Cannot act as PIC High Performance AC

    • 200 Horsepower or retractable gear, flaps, & controllable propeller

  • flight instruction from authorized CFI

  • logbook endorsement

  • PIC time before November 1, 1973

  • PIC check by FAA , 121, 125, 135 PIC check, or a military PIC check

61.31 High Altitude Aircraft

  • Private or commercial pilot cannot act as PIC of pressurized AC with service ceiling or max operating altitudeabove 25,000’unless that person has:

    • flight instruction from authorized CFI

    • logbook endorsement

  • PIC time before April 15, 1991

  • PIC check by FAA, 121, 125, 135 PIC check, or a military PIC check

61.31 Tailwheel Aircraft

  • Cannot act as PIC of tailwheel AC unless that pilot has:

    • flight instruction from authorized CFI includingnormal, crosswind, and wheel landings

    • logbook endorsement

  • Grandfather clause - PIC time before April 15, 1991

FAR 61.51Logging of Pilot time (c)

  • 1. Solo - sole occupant

  • 2. Pilot in command - sole manipulator

  • 3. Second in command - aircraft requires more than one pilot.

  • 4. Instrument time - simulated or actual - CFI - instructing in actual conditions

61.56 Flight Review

  • No person may act as PIC without a Flight Review and Logbook endorsement.

    • 1 Hr Flight Instruction

    • 1 Hour Ground Instruction

  • Complete “approved” proficiency check

  • Complete the “Wings” Program

    • Flight Instructors who have completed renewal need not complete ground instruction

61.57 Recent Flight Experience

  • Daytime - cannot act as PIC carrying passengers unless

    • 3 Takeoffs & landings in same category & class during last 90 days

      • Full Stop in tailwheel aircraft

  • Night

    • 3 Takeoffs & landings in same category & class during last 90 days

    • 1 Hr after sunset to 1 Hr before sunrise

61.57 Recent IFR Experience

  • Cannot act as PIC under IFR nor in WX below VFR unless within last 6 calendar months

    • 6 Hours of actual or simulated

    • 3 Hrs in flight in same category of aircraft

    • 6 Instrument approaches in same category

  • Instrument Competency Check

    • FAA , Military, FAA check pilot, certified CFII

FAR 61.189Flight Instructor Records

(a) Each Flight Instructor ShallSign the Logbook Of each person he has givenFlight or Ground Instruction

FAR 61.193Flight Instructor Authorizations

A Flight Instructor is Authorized

(a) To give Flight and Ground Inst.

(b) To Endorse the Certificate for Solo or Solo Cross-country

(c) To Endorse the Logbook for single or repeated Solo Flights

(d) To Endorse the Logbook for prep. & preflight planning for XC

FAR 91.3 Responsibility & Authority of Pilot in Command

  • Final Authority as to the operation of that aircraft.

  • May deviate from any rule to the extent required to meet an emergency.

  • Shall uponrequest send a written report of that deviation to the Administrator.

91.103 Preflight Action

  • Each Pilot in Command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight.

  • weather, fuel requirements, alternatives, traffic delays, takeoff & landing distances.

  • any necessary information relating to aircraft performance.

FAR 91.111 Operating Near Other Aircraft

  • No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard.

  • No formation flight - except by pre- arrangement of PICs.

  • No formation flight with passengers for hire.

FAR 91.117 Aircraft Speed

  • Below 10,000’ MSL:250 knots or less - 288 mph or less

  • Within 4 NM of an airport in class C or class D airspace at or below 2500 AGL :200 knots or less - 230 mph or less

  • Below airspace underlying class B airspace200 knots or less - 230 mph or less

FAR 91.119 Minimum Safe Altitudes

  • Anywhere - An altitude which will allow a safe emergency landing without hazard to people or property on the surface.

  • Congested Area - 1000’above the highest obstacle within 2000’or the aircraft.

  • Other than congested areas - 500’

  • Over water & sparsely populated areas:no closer than 500’to any person, vessel, vehicle or structure.

FAR 91.411 Altimeter System Checks

  • No person may operate an aircraft in controlled airspace under IFR unless

  • Within the previous 24 calendar months

    • the system has been checked and found to comply to part 43

  • Following installation of an encoder or any system maintenance

    • the system has been checked and found to comply to part 43

FAR 91.411 Transponder Tests & Inspections

  • No person may use an ATC transponder unless:

  • within the previous 24 calendar months

    • the system has been checked and found to comply to part 43

  • following installation or maintenance on a transponder

    • the system has been checked and found to comply to part 43

Secret to Taking a Check Ride

  • Allow a check pilot to establish his (or her superiority..

  • When he thinks you think that he’s the greatest thing since Lindberg, the ride will go better!!!

Emergency Landings

  • Airspeed - level or slightly low nose attitude - Fly the Airplane.

  • Airfield - landing site within 45 degrees.

  • Fuel - Carb Heat - Ignition.

  • Fly the Airplane - maintain control.

  • Pilot should know emergency procedures specific to the airplane he/she is flying.

  • Final Phase - Fly the Airplane - No steep turns close to the ground - flaps.

  • It’s a physiological fact that your can only do one thing at a time.

  • If you spend too much time doing one thing in an airplane,

  • know that something else is probably going to hell.

NTSBU.S. Transportation Fatalities

  • Highway21,36621,494

  • Aviation 994 800

  • Marine 972861



  • Learn from the Mistakes of Others....

  • You will not live long enough to make them all yourself!

Aircraft Accidents by YearState of Montana

  • Good Judgment comes from experience...

  • Experience is often the result of bad judgment!

Aircraft Fatalities by YearState of Montana

Military Training Routes

  • 3 Mid Air Collisions since 1986

  • 51 known near mid air incidents

  • 46 NASA Reports Filed

  • Need to determine activity in MTR for flight planning purposes.

  • AC-210-5B “Military Flying Activities”

  • AC 90-48C “

Military Training Routes

  • Airman’s Information Manual Chapter 3, Section 5, Para 3-41

  • Sectional Aeronautical Charts

  • IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts

Stall - Spin Accidents

  • 3rd Leading cause of fatalities.

  • Need to stress recurrent training.

  • High level vs low level stalls.

  • Need to teach approach to stall awareness.

  • Need to develop immediate reactions to approach to low level stall situations.

  • Don’t put yourself in a situation

  • where you are committed

  • to just one course of action!

VMC into IMC

  • 2rd Leading cause of fatalities

  • Need to stress the importance of not pressing the weather

  • Legal minimums not necessarily safe minimums

  • 178 Seconds

  • The 180 degree turn can be a life saving maneuver


  • The inability of a person to perceive his/her position relative to the earth.

  • In other words.... he/she cannot tell which way is UP!!!

  • If the weather briefing makes you nervous...

  • What makes you think theflight will calm your nerves?

  • It’s better to be on the ground, wishing you were in the air, than it is

  • to be in the air, wishing you were on the ground!

Unwarranted Low Level Flying

  • TheLeadingCause of Fatalities in Montana

  • Low level sight-seeing

  • Looking for Elk or Game

  • Just Plain Buzzing

  • Life Threatening Situation

  • 43 Fatalities over 10 year period

Minimum Safe Altitude

  • A. One where you don’t hit anything.

  • B. One where you don’t have to worry about hitting anything.

  • C. One where neither you, nor your passengers nor the FAA have to worry about you hitting anything!

  • Caution is not Cowardice...

  • Nor is carelessness...


Farm for Sale

  • Quiet Surroundings

  • Wood Structure Included

  • Flowers blooming annually

  • Area 3’ x 6’ x 6’

  • For More Information

  • Ignore Safety

Pilot Proficiency Award Program

  • “Wings”

  • Attend Safety Meeting

  • 1 Hr Dual - Instruments

  • 1 Hr. Dual - Basic Air Maneuvers

  • 1 Hr. Dual - Landings

  • Set of Wings

  • Wall Certificate Suitable for Framing

Flight Instructor - Wings

  • Put 3 Students through the Wings Program - Receive your wings!

  • Good for the first three phases

  • No waiting period

  • Remaining phases - Proficiency Flight & 12 month waiting period

  • 1995 Maintenance Technician of the Year Award

  • 1995 General Aviation Flight Instructor of the Year Award

  • Cash Prizes

  • Free Trip to the EAA Fly-In Convention

9th Annual Family Fly-In and Flight Safety Expo

  • July 20-23, 1995

  • Helena, Montana

Thanks for Having Us!

  • “A Superior pilot is one

  • who stays out of trouble

  • by using Superior Judgment

  • to avoid situations

  • which might require

  • the use of Superior skill.”

Sig Ugrin

  • Miles City Aero Service

  • Safety Program Counselor

Ted Mason

  • Manager

  • Air Traffic Control

Irene Gross

  • Billings Flight Service

  • Great Falls Flight Service

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