Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems
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Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems. Chapter 3. 3.1 Community Ecology. Communities. A biological community----- group of interacting populations occupying the same area at the same time. Oasis. Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems. Chapter 3. Ecological Succession.

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Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3

3.1 Community Ecology

Communities

  • A biological community-----group of interacting populations occupying the same area at the same time.

Oasis


Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3

Ecological Succession

  • The change in an ecosystem that happens when one community replaces another as a result of changing abiotic and biotic factors is ecological succession.

  • Two types

    • Primary succession

    • Secondary succession.


Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3

  • Primary succession-the establishment of a community in an area of exposed rock-no topsoil


Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3

Secondary succession

  • Orderly/predictable change- takes place after a community of organisms has been removed but the soil has remained intact is. Ex. Fire, tornado, volcano


Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3

Limiting Factors that affect species

  • Any abiotic factor or biotic factor restricts (limits):

    • numbers

    • reproduction

    • distribution of organisms

  • Ex:

    • sunlight, climate, temperature, water, nutrients, fire, soil chemistry, and space, and other living things


Population Ecology

Chapter 4

Population-Limiting Factors- 2 categories

density-independent factors: usually abiotic factors in which population has no control & includes natural disasters. Ex: air, land, water availability, human alterations of the landscape. Natural disasters such as drought, fire, flooding, tornado, hurricane, etc.

density-dependent factors: often biotic factors, depends on # of members in population. Ex: Predation, disease, parasites, competition


Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3

Range of Tolerance

  • An upper limit and lower limit- defines the conditions an organism can survive

  • The ability of any organism to survive when subjected to abiotic factors or biotic factors is called tolerance.


Cdq 2

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3

CDQ 2

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which biome is the most diverse?

tundra

tropical savanna

tropical seasonal forest

tropical rainforest


Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3

FQ 4

3.2 Formative Questions

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

By what characteristics are biomes primarily named?

by their average weather conditions

by their latitudes and climates

by the type of animal communities within them

by the type of plant communities within them


Stp 6

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Average

temperature (°C)

Average

precipitation (cm)

0 100

10 150

20 100

25 200

Chapter 3

STP 6

Standardized Test Practice

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is the approximate average temperature and annual precipitation in the boreal forest biome?


Stp 4

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3

STP 4

Standardized Test Practice

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What type of community is likely to exist near the top of a mountain?

tundra

arctic desert

coniferous forest

temperate grassland


Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

Factors that Threaten Biodiversity

are caused by one species….

Homo sapiens

Humans are changing the conditions on Earth.

  • Overexploitation

  • Habitat Loss/Habitat Destruction

  • Pollution

    Acid Precipitation

    Eutrophication

  • Introduced species/Alien species


Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

5.2 Threats to Biodiversity

Overexploitation -excessive use of species that have economic value

  • Rhinoceros

  • Bison

  • Ocelot

  • Passenger pigeons


Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

5.2 Threats to Biodiversity

Pollution-harmful substances released into the environment; threaten biodiversity and global stability

  • Biological magnification- increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as trophic levels increase in a food chain or food web.

    Ex: DDT levels in the American

    Bald Eagle – made eggshells

    fragile, broke before eggs

    could hatch.


Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

5.2 Threats to Biodiversity

Acid Precipitation - sulfuric acid and nitric acid mix with water in the atmosphere. This depletes the calcium, potassium, etc. from the soil, depriving plants of nutrients.

Assessing Water Quality


Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

5.2 Threats to Biodiversity

  • Eutrophication – a type of water pollution that occurs when substances rich in nitrogen and phosphorus (ex: fertilizer) flow into waterways, causing extensive algae growth.

  • The rapidly growing algae use up the oxygen and other organisms suffocate.


Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

  • Renewable resources- Resources that are replaced by natural processes faster than they are consumed. Ex. Pine trees

  • Nonrenewable resources-Resources on Earth in limited amounts or replaced by natural processes over extremely long periods of time Ex: Fossil fuels, radioactive uranium

  • Sustainable use - using resources at a rate in which they can be replaced or recycled Ex: Preservation & Conserving.


Cdq 21

Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

CDQ 2

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What form of pollution is caused by

extensive algae growth in waterways?

acid precipitation

eutrophication

biological magnification

edge effects


Cdq 3

Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

CDQ 3

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which is not a renewable resource?

solar energy

fossil fuels

agricultural plants

clean water


Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

FQ 2

5.1 Formative Questions

  • A

  • B

It is likely that some of the world’s unidentified species will have economic value.

true

false


Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

FQ 5

5.2 Formative Questions

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Where are most extinctions likely to occur

in the near future?

deserts

grasslands

tropical forests

temperate forests


Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

FQ 7

5.2 Formative Questions

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is the number one cause of species

extinction today?

habitat loss

human predators

transported diseases

background extermination


Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

FQ 8

5.3 Formative Questions

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which resource is nonrenewable?

agricultural plants

clean water

forest timber

mineral deposits


Caq 1

Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

CAQ 1

Chapter Assessment Questions

Look at the figure. Name the process that is occurring with the increasing concentration of DDT.

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

pollution

extinction

biological magnification

habitat fragmentation


Stp 2

Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

STP 2

Standardized Test Practice

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

How does genetic diversity increase a species’

chance of survival?

It increases the number of organisms that have useful genes.

It increases the ability of a species to adapt toenvironmental changes.

It produces a variety of species within a biological community.

It randomly distributes members of a species throughout an ecosystem.


Stp 3

Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

STP 3

Standardized Test Practice

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

If a toxic substance enters this food web, which animals will have the highest concentration of the toxic substance in their tissues?

fishes

killer whales

sea otters

sea urchins


Stp 41

Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 5

STP 4

Standardized Test Practice

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What type of substances causes

eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems?

acid rain

fertilizers

PCBs

pesticides


Stp 5

Biodiversity and Conservation

land area

population

industrialization

availability of

resources

Chapter 5

STP 5

Standardized Test Practice

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which factor has the greatest impact on a country’s rate of natural resource consumption?


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