Policing within the eu social control at what cost
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Policing within the EU: Social Control at what cost?. Prof. John Winterdyk [email protected] Director: Centre for Criminology and Justice Research Adjunct Prof: St Thomas Un., and Polytechnic of Namibia With assistance from: Ms. Crystal Hincks Date/Location: October 22 – 23, 2010

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Policing within the EU: Social Control at what cost?

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Policing within the eu social control at what cost

Policing within the EU: Social Control at what cost?

Prof. John Winterdyk

[email protected]

Director: Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

Adjunct Prof: St Thomas Un., and Polytechnic of Namibia

With assistance from: Ms. Crystal Hincks

Date/Location: October 22 – 23, 2010

University of Luxembourg

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Overview it is better to prevent crimes than to punish them c beccaria 1763 93

Overview“it is better to prevent crimes than to punish them” C. Beccaria (1763:93)

  • Qualifiers

  • Crime as a social construct

  • Crime control

  • Models of policing

  • Pluralization of policing

  • Policing in post 9-11

  • Summary

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Qualifier

Qualifier

  • Social scientist

    • Evidence based dec-making

  • Critical realist

  • Capacity over more order

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Crime as a social construct

Crime as a Social Construct

  • Two fundamental guiding principles to a harmonious society:

    • “Do all you say you agree to do”

    • “Do not encroach on other persons or their property”

  • Natural law vs. political law

  • Past:

    • Domain of cannon law or civil law (esp. laws of tort)

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Crime control war against terror taking toll on human rights p delean 10

Crime Control ‘war against terror taking toll on human rights’ – P. Delean ‘10

  • Utilitarian vs. vested interest groups

  • “contrology” J. Ditton

  • Crime rates

  • Financial burden

  • Erosion of community support

  • Need for ‘more order’

  • Forced compliance doesn’t work!

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Crime control cont

Crime Control Cont.

  • Not serve as defenders of the State but as guardians of human rights

    • research: biased and discretionary enforcement (official statistics) Quinney ‘86

    • Social injury (e.g., human rights violations, imperialism, sexism, racism, poverty, state terrorism) DeKeserdy et al. ’05

    • Transnational policing in the EU – justified and legitimated

  • Form of deviance

  • Control…subjective and/or political manipulation Braithwaite ’89

  • “abolitionism” K. Stenson ‘95

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Models of policing

MODELS OF POLICING

  • Traditional Model- order/maintenance role; policing was informal and based on conflict resolution; minimal interaction with community: a ‘supply’ and ‘demand’ approach – NO crime prevention…. <15% dealing with crime! (Sewell ‘85)

  • Problem Solving Police: Proactive – crime prevention… detectives, investigation, geographic profile, etc.Three Rs: random patrol, reactive investigation, rapid response; SARA (Scan, Analyze, Response, and Assessment) vs. CAPRA (Client, Acquire, Partnerships, Response, and Assessment).

  • Community Oriented Policing: Highly interactive with community ; 3 Ps of community policing: public involvement, problem solving, and prevention of crime.

    Barlow & Barlow, 2009

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Productivity of the police suspects per 100 police officers

Productivity of the Police:Suspects per 100 Police Officers


Citizen evaluation of police performance

Citizen Evaluation of Police Performance

1st Quartile

Poor Evaluation

Kazakhstan, Russia, Georgia,

Latvia, Romania, Ukraine,

Estonia, Belarus, Lithuania

2nd Quartile

Medium Evaluation

Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary,

Poland, Czech. Rep.,

Italy, Portugal,

Austria, Albania

3rd Quartile

Medium Evaluation

Spain, Macedonia, Slovakia,

Malta, Slovenia, Finland,

Belgium, Switzerland

4th Quartile

High Evaluation

France, Ireland, Netherlands,

Sweden, England and Wales,

Denmark, Canada, USA,

Scotland

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Policing within the eu social control at what cost

  • Relative efficiency:

    • Crime prevention

    • Crime control

    • Conflict resolution

    • General services – traffic, PR with public…

    • Police administration – integrity, leadership

    • ? Productivity (complex and complicated)

    • Criminal investigation (12 city study) “left much to be desired”! (Sewell ‘92)

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Pluralization of policing

PLURALIZATION OF POLICING

  • Governments no longer have a monopoly on policing (“high policing”)

  • Private security and consulting companies are growing at 2-3x the rate of police forces (“low policing” Brodeur ‘83)

  • Increase in citizen policing, special constables, peace officers, auxiliaries, and crime prevention agencies have reduced the need for more sworn officers

  • Growth of civilian positions have surpassed officers 2:1

    • 1 civilian member for every 2.5 officers


Policing within the eu social control at what cost

PROFILE OF COUNTRIES for 2006

Source: UNODC (2007)

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Belief in police efficiency

Belief in Police Efficiency

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Percentage of people who reported paying brides 2006 2009 by service 09 global corruption barometer

Percentage of people who reported paying brides (2006-2009), by service‘09 Global Corruption Barometer

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Hi lites for reform

Hi-lites for reform

  • Does low enforcement work?

    • Do they provide value for our taxes? (Waller ‘09)

    • When police strike – predatory crimes increase (robbery/assaults)

    • Clinton admin 20% increase in policing! Impact…none

  • More police, more professionalism, more power, more… is NOT better

    • 65% respond to 911 calls!

    • Investigation 20%... $13B annually

    • Problem oriented policing …. Shows promise and crime prevention through social development

  • Refocus on risk factors and protective factors

  • Shift 3-5% of LE budget to prevention (risk factors) and victim support

  • !! US Gallup Pools show since 1990…public favors ‘education and jobs’ over ‘police and prisons’

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Policing in post 9 11 times

POLICING IN POST 9-11 TIMES

  • Terrorist attacks are both acts of war and also crimes

  • Prevention of the next terrorist attack is priority number one for governments

    • Stopping large scale attacks are the public safety imperative, even if it means risking the individuals that police typically serve

  • Advocates of stronger immigration laws are crying for local police to become involved in enforcing immigration law

    • Police do not want this role

    • Would result in a major setback in the progress of community policing over the past two decades

    • Police would wind up on the wrong side of the immigrant communities would be a mistake

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Policing within the eu social control at what cost

Police would require greater power and authority

  • That power, meant to be used for investigating and stopping terrorism, would be used in investigations of other crimes.

  • This power comes attached to the expectation that it will also be used to police immigration

  • One concern is the need for more manpower and resources

  • Slippery slope of human rights

  • UK law school study

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Costs of crime fighting in canada

Costs of Crime Fighting in Canada

  • Direct cost of the CJS- EUR 20 billion

    • Includes policing, courts, corrections

    • 2x more than unemployment

    • 3x more than childcare

    • 2x more than seniors pensions

    • Tax-payers 7X more to achieve 10% reduction vs. SD

  • Indirect cost of the CJS- EUR 25 billion

    • Costs incurred by victims; insurance, replacement, medical system, lawyers, lost wages

      Is it more cost effective to prevent crime and/or investigate?

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

http://ww4.ps-sp.gc.ca/en/library/publications/fact_sheets/cpsd/index/html


Offending and victimization is predictable for groups not individuals

Offending and Victimization is Predictable for Groups (not individuals)

  • 5% of youth account for 55% of offences

    • The 5% experience more risk factors- poverty, ineffective parenting, dropping out of school

  • 4% of victims account for 44% of victimization

    • The 4% lead life routines that increase risk, such as not guarding goods, vulnerable to opportunity, close to offenders

  • “Hot Spot” locations exist for drugs and other offences

    • “Hot Spots” concentrate offenders and victims geographically

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

Source: Waller, 2003


Summary we are sadly not close to solving the global problems of unsafety b holtmann 10

Summary“we are sadly not close to solving the global problems of unsafety” B. Holtmann ‘10

  • Focus not on just reducing crime rates/investigation

  • Improve quality of life/community capacity

    • Build trust between pop. and CJS

    • Protective factors promote +ve alternate life-choices

  • Prevention polices…’backseat’ to public safety policies

    • ‘02 UN Guidelines for CP

      • Social, economic, health & educational development

      • Locally based CP

      • Situational

      • Reduction of recidivism

  • SROI…$1 prevention savings up to $10 intervention!

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


Policing within the eu social control at what cost

Thank You/Merci/Danke

[email protected]

Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


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