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Handshake: Effects of Environment and Gender. Introduction. Past Research. Sparked our interest… Handshaking, Gender, Personality, and First Impressions, by Chaplin et al., (2000)

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Handshake: Effects of Environment and Gender

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Handshake: Effects of Environment and Gender


Introduction


Past Research

  • Sparked our interest…

    • Handshaking, Gender, Personality, and First Impressions, by Chaplin et al., (2000)

    • Handshaking, Personality, and Psychopathology in Psychiatric Patients, a Reliability and Correlational Study, by Åström, et al., (1993)


Purpose

  • Examine how differences in scripts affects the participants’ handshaking characteristics

  • Examine how the gender of both the researchers and of the participants affects the participants’ handshaking characteristics


Hypotheses

  • Locus of Control & Self-Esteem

  • Script

  • Gender

    • Participant

    • Researcher


Method


Participants

  • 42 Undergraduate General Psychology Students

  • 12 Males & 30 Females

  • Mean age = 19.40 years

  • All participants were treated according to APA ethical guidelines


Scripts

Casual

Formal

Surveys Used

Locus of Control

Rotter’s Internal-External Control Scale

Self-Esteem

New York State Self-Esteem Scale

Handshake Rating Scale

Likert Scale from 1-5

Grip

Strength

Duration

Video Cameras

Materials


Scripts

  • Casual

    Thanks for coming today. How’s your day going? All right, before we get started, the Psych Dept. wants you to fill out these forms so that you will get credit for doing this. It’ll only take a second. All right, now you will be filling out two surveys about your personality and self-esteem. Don’t worry about them, just fill it out the best you can. We just want to find out some information about your personality and your self-esteem. When you are done, just let me know. Okay, you can go ahead and get started.


Scripts

  • Formal

    This study is investigating personality traits. You will be asked to fill out multiple-item surveys on personality and self-esteem, as honestly as possible. When you are finished, please turn your completed surveys into the experimenter in the front of the room. All your responses will remain anonymous. The surveys contain no marker, so your name will not be associated with any responses or results. You will be classified by gender, and a randomly assigned participant identification number will be given to your survey. Your participation is voluntary and you may stop at any time without penalty. If you have any questions, please feel free to ask one of the experimenters. Before we begin, however, I need you to fill out these forms for the Psychology Department in order for you to receive for this experiment. Thank you for your time and participation.


Handshaking Rating Scale

Strength

1--------2--------3--------4--------5

limpfirm

Duration

1--------2--------3--------4--------5

shortlong

Grip

1--------2--------3--------4--------5

incompletecomplete


Design

  • 2x2x2 Factorial Design

  • Completely Between-Subject Design

  • Participants individually run

  • Raters blind to script


Female Ss, Casual script, Female Rs

Female Ss, Formal script, Female Rs

Female Ss, Casual script, Male Rs

Female Ss, Formal script, Male Rs

Male Ss, Casual script, Female Rs

Male Ss, Formal script, Female Rs

Male Ss, Casual script, Male Rs

Male Ss, Formal script, Male Rs

Conditions


Handshake Training

  • Pre-established self-rated scale

  • Researchers handshake based on consistent comparison scale


Procedure

  • Individual Ss brought into room

    • Instructions and Surveys given by Rs according to script condition

  • Upon completion of surveys, Rater entered room and performed handshake

    • Rater immediately scored handshake

  • Ss was then debriefed


Results


Results

  • Multiple ANOVAs

    • Internal/External Locus of Control

      • Gripp = .43NS

      • Strengthp = .44NS

      • Durationp = .77NS

      • Averagep = .61NS


Results, con’t.

  • Multiple ANOVAs

    • Self-Esteem (high/low)

      • Gripp = .68NS

      • Strengthp = .81NS

      • Durationp = .74NS

      • Averagep = .97NS


Results - Grip

  • Main Effects

    • Genderp = .93NS

    • Scriptp = .06*

    • Gender of Rsp = .003*

  • 2-way Interactions

    • Gender & Scriptp = .07*

    • Gender & Gender of Rsp = .07*

    • Script & Gender of Rsp = .16NS


Grip, con’t.

  • 3-way Interactions

    • Gender, Script & Gender of Rs

    • p = .19NS


Grip Graph


Results - Strength

  • Main Effects

    • Genderp = .51NS

    • Scriptp = .02*

    • Gender of Rsp = .03*

  • 2-way Interactions

    • Gender & Scriptp = .02*

    • Gender & Gender of Rsp = .04*

    • Script & Gender of Rsp = .07*


Strength, con’t.

  • 3-way Interaction

    • Gender, Script, & Gender of Rs

    • p = .21NS


Strength Graph


Results - Duration

  • Main Effects

    • Genderp = .09*

    • Scriptp = .17NS

    • Gender of Rsp = .02*

  • 2-way Interactions

    • Gender & Scriptp = .62NS

    • Gender & Gender of Rsp = .20NS

    • Script & Gender of Rsp = .03*


Duration, con't.

  • 3-way Interaction

    • Gender, Script & Gender of Rs

    • p = .02*


Duration Graph


Results - Average

  • Main Effects

    • Genderp = .799NS

    • Scriptp = .03*

    • Gender of Rsp = .005*

  • 2-way Interactions

    • Gender & Scriptp = .06*

    • Gender & Gender of Rsp = .05*

    • Script & Gender of Rsp = .04*


Average, con’t.

  • 3-way Interaction

    • Gender, Script & Gender of Rs

    • p = .07*


Average Graph


Evaluation of Hypotheses

  • Internal/External Locus of Control & Self-Esteem

    • No significant results

  • Script

    • Main effect

    • Marginal interaction with Gender

    • Interaction with Gender of Rs

    • Marginal interaction with Gender & Gender of Rs


Evaluation of Hypotheses, con’t.

  • Gender of Ss

    • Marginal interaction with Script

    • Interaction of Gender of Rs

    • Marginal interaction with Script & Gender of Rs

  • Gender of Rs

    • Main effect

    • Interaction of Gender

    • Interaction of Script

    • Marginal interaction with Gender & Script


What it all means...

  • “It Depends”


Discussion


Discussion

  • Implications

    • First Impressions

    • Interview Settings

    • Cross-cultural Understanding

      • Others Understanding the “American” handshake


Discussion, con’t.

  • Shortcomings

    • Expose to all conditions

    • “Backpack Factor”

    • Operationally Define Casual & Formal Script


Discussion, con’t.

  • Future Research

    • Cultural Background Differences

    • Manipulate Environment

    • Different Age Groups


Conclusion


QUESTIONS??


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