Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body
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Heat-internal vibration of molecules within the body. Conduction-heat lost or gained by direct contact Convection-movement through air or H2O tranfers heat to our body Radiation-transfer of heat from warmer source to cooler one Evaporation-transfer from liquid to gas state

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Heat-internal vibration of molecules within the body

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Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

Heat-internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Conduction-heat lost or gained by direct contact

  • Convection-movement through air or H2O tranfers heat to our body

  • Radiation-transfer of heat from warmer source to cooler one

  • Evaporation-transfer from liquid to gas state

  • Superficial heat-HP,W/P paraffin

  • Deep heat-diathermy, ultra sound


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Thermotherapy-heat modalities, used when goal is to increase temperature

  • Cryotherapy-cold modalities

  • Hydrotherapy-H2O is used as medium to increase or decrease tissue temp.

  • Heat:

    • produces analgesic affect

    • promotes ms. Relaxation

    • increases elasticity

    • decreases viscocity of C.T.

    • Increases local metabolism of A’s and caps

    • inc. blood flow to body part treated, inc. edema

    • inc. Leukocytes and phagocytosis


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Examples of superficial heat<1cm.

  • Hot packs

    • moist heat-stored in hydrocollator units -165 F

    • 6-8 layers for insulation

    • towel for perspiration

    • consider body part treated, position of pt., weight of HP

    • Cervical, lumbar, small and large

    • describe to pt. what to expect

  • Paraffin

    • 1 cm. Mineral oil and wax (5# wax/1 part oil) temp. 125 F,retains perspiration and softens skin


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Good for distal parts of extremities

  • Methods

    • Glove-dip 8-10 times, bag, towel, elevate, treatment time 20 min. return wax to unit

    • Immersion-dip once to coat, then immerse remainder of time, temp. Increase is greater than glove-edema may result

    • Advantages

      • Conforms to body part treated

    • Disadvantages

      • can’t use with open wound

    • Fluidotherapy

      • dry, warm air is circulated

      • can use with splints,other things to enhance tx.


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Contraindications for heat

    • acute inflammation,fever, malignancies, acute hemorrhage, PVD, overradiated pt, cardiac insufficiency, unexplained pain, acute infection coma, int bleed; precautions-impaired circulation, pregnancy, older adults and children<4 yo

    • Precautions: previous existing edema, sensory loss, confused patients


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Cryotherapy-use of cold-goal it to decrease tiss temp, it dec metabolism, causes vasocon, dec bl flow, nerve ms excitability, ms spindle activity, edema and promotes analgesia

  • Ice-silica gel in frig, cold W/P, ice w/p, massage, cold spray, contrast baths, normal cold progression-cold, stinging, burning, numbness

    Indications-spasticity, acute inf, ms spasm, edema


Contraindications

Contraindications

  • Raynaud’s disease, cardiac dysfunction open wounds after 48-72 hours, arterial insufficiency, cold urticaria


Contrast baths

Contrast Baths

-two containers with warm/cool water

-warm 80-104 degrees F

-cool 55-67

-Immerse in warm 3-4 min, then cool 1 min.

-Repeat 5-6 times

-Always finish with warm

-used for chronic edema, infl. conditions, hypersensitization


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Hydrotherapy-Archimedes principle-an immersed object exerts an upward thrust = wt. Of H2O displaced (buoyancy)

  • viscocity-resistance to flow

  • W/P source of moist heat

  • hydrostatic pressure-exerted agst skin

  • Pascal’s law- fluid exerts = pressure on all surfaces of a body at rest which increases in proportion to depth


Whirlpool

Whirlpool

  • Conduction and convection

  • Get inc rate of lymph flow, local met inc., perspiration inc, debridement, vasodiation, ms relax, inc cell perm and assist or resis with ROM

  • Increases hydrostatic pressure which may increase lymph circulation

  • Graded exercise (with or against turbulence

  • Debrides necrotic tissue therefore decreasing bacterial load


Indications

Indications

Stage III and IV wounds

Subacute and chronic inflammatory conditions

Early PVD

Peripheral nerve injuried

Muscle weakness


Contraindications1

Contraindications

  • Same as those for heat

  • Venous ulcers


Temperatures

Very hot-104-110

Hot-99-104

Mild Warm-96-98

Neutral-92-96

Tepid-79-92

Cold-32-79

Soft tissue extens, chronic

Pain

Burn patients

Open wounds, circ, sensory, cardiac disorder, decrease tone

Exercise, acute inflam (if not able to tol cold)

Acute inflammation

Temperatures


Aquatic therapy

Aquatic therapy

  • Same principles apply

  • Water temp-79-97 degrees F

    • 93-97 for light exercise by elderly deconditoned

    • 79-83 for more intense exercise and recreational pools

    • Should not go below 65 F (may impair ms. contract)

  • % of WB with depth immersion:

    • C7-8%

    • Xiphoid-28%

    • ASIS-47%


Advantages

Advantages

  • Ease of movement, weightlessness

  • Progressive WB

  • Can facilitate, support or resist mvmt

  • Ease of pt handling

  • Total body mvmt

  • Easy to progress program

  • Can perform many types of exercise


Laws for dosage of em radiation

Laws for dosage of EM radiation

  • Cosine law-absorption of ray is optimal when it strikes the surface at the perpendicular

  • Inverse square law-Intensity of radiation at any distance is inversely proportional to the square of the distance b/w the sure face and the source of radiation

  • Arndt-Schultz law-a certain minimum stimulus is needed to initiate a biological process


Diathermy

Diathermy

  • To heat through (3-5 cm.)

  • Converts hi fx electromag E to heat in tissues

  • Frequency 27.12 MHz

  • Contraindications

    • General for heat

    • Pacemakers

    • Metal implants

    • Epiphyses

    • Eyes, testes, malignancy, pregnancy


Disadvantages

Disadvantages

  • Pool cost/ maintenance and upkeep

  • Time in commuting/changing

  • Limited carryover

  • Additional risk


Precautions

Precautions

  • Bowel/bladder incontinence

  • Open wounds

  • Infectious disease

  • Seizures

  • Tracheotomy tubes

  • Severe cardiovascular disease

  • Orthopedic instability


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Induction field-places pt in the EM field produced by the equipment ; current is induced in conductive tissues-heats superficial ms., heat is produced in deeper ms. from overlying ms. (drums or induction coil)

  • Condensor field (capacitance)- pt. is placed b/w 2 e’s in the electrical circuit (air spaced plates)


Radiant heat

Radiant Heat

  • Infrared and ultraviolet

  • Infrared-form of radiant heat which emits infrared waves (outside visible spectrum)

  • 2 types-

  • Luminous-emits short infrared waves

  • Non-luminous-emits long infrared waves

  • Indications-seeping wounds,chronic conditions

  • Contra-same for heat


Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet

  • Causes a chemical change in tissues

  • Both UV and infrared possess these characteristics

  • Direction of travel is in straight line that can be reflected, refracted, absorbed or passed through depending on the medium they strike


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Light is characterized by:

  • Wavelength-measured in nanometers

  • Visible-b/w 400-800 nm

  • UV light-180-400

  • Infrared-800-1500

  • Frequency-# of oscillations or vibrations in 1 second-expressed in hertz

  • The higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • UVA-320-400 nm.-penetrates furthest (into dermis)

  • UVB-290-320-psoriasis

  • UVC-<290, cold quartz-operates at low temps. Used to promote bacteriocidal effects, wound debridement, tissue regeneration

  • UV is used to promote erythemal response w/in 12 hours of exposure-causes chemical reaction that impacts on the immune system


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Indications

  • -pressure sores, acne, wound care, psoriasis, to decrease bacteria in pressure sores (especially after pulsed lavage)

  • Contraindications

  • -photosensitivity, cancer, systemic lupus errythmatosis, cardiac, kidney or liver disease active TB, fever, acute diabetes, drugs, direct eye contact


Precautions1

Precautions

  • Photosensitivity as a result of drugs

  • Drugs such as gold salts, psoralens, tetracyclines

  • Syphilis

  • Alcohol

  • Elevated levels of estrogen

  • Foods such as shellfish, strawberries


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Must establish MED-exposure time necessary to produce mild erythemal dose-lasts to 48 hours

  • SED-no erythema

  • MED-smallest dose producing erythema

  • Appears 1-6 hrs, fades in 24


Technique

Technique

  • Goggles

  • Place body part perpedicular

  • Protect skin not treated

  • Use same lamp

  • Cover genitals, nipples

  • Place lamp 24-36 inches away

  • Use test strip to test-uncover each hole so 1st hole will have greatest exposure


Procedure

Procedure

  • Cut six holes with different shapes

  • Use skin not exposed to uv light

  • Remove clothing, jewelry, wash area

  • Attach MED strip and cover with towel

  • Position lamp perpend to treated surface

  • 30 sec hole 1,2. 15 sec. 3-6


Heat internal vibration of molecules within the body

  • Instruct pt. to check arm in bright area every 2 hrs. and document which symbols appear and fade

  • Dosage time should be increased by 25% next treatment as long as effects of previous dose have disappeared


Lasers

Lasers

  • EM E within visible spectrum

  • Low level laser therapy

  • Used for tissue healing and pain management

  • Contraindicated for pregnant women, unclosed fontanelles of children, cancerous lesions, cornea, endocrine glands and hemorrhaging lesions


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