Chapter 15

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Announcements. Announcements. Remember: Last Day to Drop is November 14th. Announcements. COLLIN COLLEGE AUTEUR FILM SERIESMUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING7 p.m., Thurs., Nov. 1, 2007 at the Spring Creek Campus Conference Center (AA135C) Collin College, 2800 E. Spring Creek Parkway, Plano (PG-13, 1993, d

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Chapter 15

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1. Chapter 15 Personality (Part 2)

2. Announcements

3. Announcements Remember: Last Day to Drop is November 14th

4. Announcements

5. Announcements

6. Announcements

7. Announcements

8. End of Semester Roadmap Chapter 15 (Part 2) Today Chapter 16 (Psychopathology) and Tuesday November 6th and Thursday November 8th Chapter 17 (Psychotherapy) November 13th and 15th

9. End of Semester Roadmap Chapter 17 (Psychotherapy) November 8th, 13th, and 15th Chapter 18 (Social Psych) November 15th (“if time permits”) November 20th Review of Exam 1 Material for the Final

10. End of Semester Roadmap November 20th Review of Exam 1 Material for the Final November 22nd Thanksgiving Holiday November 27th Review of Exam 2 Material for the Final Exam 4: Monday November 26th through Saturday December 1st November 29th Review of Exam 3 Material for the Final

11. Chapter 15 Roadmap Fictional Finalism (Again) and Terror Management Theory Neo-Freudians Humanist or “Third Force” Tests, Testing, and Factor Analysis

12. Did anyone try this test? Keirsey (

13. Fictional Finalism & Terror Management Theory Remember, from last time, Freud’s Defense Mechanisms?

14. Freud (p. 600) Defense Mechanisms Repression: (underlies all other defense mechanisms; unresolved conflicts remain in unconscious) Regression: retreat to an earlier state; classic example: curling into a “fetal position”; also “acting like a 3 year old” (Friday Night at the Disco?)

15. Freud (p. 600) Defense Mechanisms Projection: Attributes condition to others (“The thief thinks everyone else is a thief.”) Rationalization: self-justifying explanations to hid from ourselves the real reasons for our actions.

16. Freud (p. 600) Defense Mechanisms Displacement: diverts unacceptable impulses toward an object or person that is more acceptable than the one that aroused the feelings Problem with Freud’s Defense Mechanisms: Falsifiability

17. Freud’s Defense Mechanisms Aren’t used by many clinicians in their original form; however….

18. Terror Management Theory (p. 606) Faced with a threatening world, people act not only to enhance their self-esteem but also to adhere more strongly to worldviews that answer questions about life’s meaning.

19. Terror Management Theory (p. 606) Remember “Fictional Finalism” from Adler? Adler said that people create a fiction in their head and do what it takes to move toward (or away) from that fiction. Isn’t that how people manage terrifying situations or events?

20. False Consensus Effect (p. 28 & 606) In our everyday experience we spend most of our time with a biased sample of people—mostly those who share our attitudes and habits. This leads to a tendency to overestimate others’ agreement with our opinions or habits

21. False Consensus Effect (p. 28 & 606) Vegetarians think more people are vegetarian than actually are Conservatives will perceive more support for conservative views People who talk excessively in class or while other people are talking will think their conduct is normal / acceptable The thief will think everyone else is a thief

22. False Consensus Effect and Projection Isn’t the “false consensus effect” the same as Freud’s concept of “projection”?

23. False Consensus Effect and Projection According to the class lecture, False Consensus Effect (p. 28 & 606) is similar, or the same, as what Freudian defense mechanism? a.      Regression b.      Projection c.      Displacement d.      Reaction formation

24. Neo-Freudians Other Neo-Freudians Anna Freud Karen Horney Eric Berne

25. Neo-Freudians Anna Freud

26. Neo-Freudians: Anna Freud Founder of Child Psychoanalysis Emphasized the importance of the Ego (Ego Psychology)

27. Neo-Freudians: Anna Freud One of Six Children; competition with her sister, Sophie Probably had depression and an eating disorder, but….

28. Neo-Freudians: Anna Freud Spoke Hebrew, German, English, French, and Italian Began reading Freud (her father’s work) at age 15

29. Neo-Freudians: Anna Freud: Key Contributions Generally credited with founding child psychoanalysis and child development theory Strong influence on Erik Erikson (remember his 8 stages?)

30. Neo-Freudians Other Neo-Freudians Anna Freud Karen Horney Eric Berne

31. Neo-Freudians Karen Horney

32. Neo-Freudians: Karen Horney Rejected the notion that woman “have weak superegos” Rejected Freud’s notion of “penis envy”

33. Neo-Freudians Other Neo-Freudians Anna Freud Karen Horney Eric Berne

34. Neo-Freudians Eric Berne

35. Neo-Freudians: Eric Berne Considered to be an “Ego Psychologist” (focused more on socialization of the Ego than unconscious drives) Founder of Transactional Analysis

36. Neo-Freudians: Eric Berne Eric Berne, an Ego Psychologist and Neo-Freudian, was the founder of what school of psychology? a. Child Psychoanalysis b. Humanist Psychology c. Transactional Analysis d. Transhumanist Psychology

37. Neo-Freudians: Eric Berne Ego Structure: Parent, Child, and Adult Books Games People Play Harris: I’m Okay, You’re Okay Later Theorists: “The Inner Child”

38. Neo-Freudians: Eric Berne Berne moved out of focus on the individual and began to look at the “transactions” between individuals Key Concept: Roles Key Concept: Scripts Key Concept: Games

39. Humanist Psychologists Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow

40. Abraham Maslow (p. 609) Maslow is most famous for his concept of Self-Actualization. Maslow believed that if our physiological and psychological needs are met, then we eventually seek to fulfill our potential.

41. Abraham Maslow (p. 609) Rather than studying “troubled people” (as did Freud and the Neo-Freudians), Maslow studies healthy and creative people. Think about it, would you rather focus on what you do not want to be, or on what you do want to be?

42. Abraham Maslow (p. 609) Maslow studies the following people to develop his theory of Self-Actualization Abraham Lincoln Thomas Jefferson Eleanor Roosevelt

43. Abraham Maslow (p. 609) Maslow developed the concept of the “peak experience,” a brief spiritual or transformative experience that led a person to devote themselves to perfecting some cause or path.

44. Abraham Maslow (p. 609) Abraham Maslow studied the lives of Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt in order to understand the nature of: a. Reciprocal determinism b. An internal locus of control c. Self-actualization d. The false consensus effect

45. Carl Rogers (p. 610) Contemporary to Maslow (they knew each other) Also focused on the potential of people, even “troubled people” Focused on “unconditional positive regard”

46. Carl Rogers (p. 610) Behaviorists Criticize Rogers thus: Behaviorists claim that when Rogers (or his students) was practicing “Unconditional Positive Regard” with patients that we actually was issuing “reinforcement” via subtle non-verbal cues, such as a nod of his head

47. Rogers and Maslow Both focused on identity, a concept essentially absent from the Freudians and clearly absent from the behaviorists. Carl Rogers concepts of “ideal self” and “actual self” have been used as a model for treating eating disorders such as Anorexia and Bulimia

48. Rogers and Maslow Psychologists (other than humanists) also criticize humanist theorists such as Rogers and Maslow for Theories that are vague and subjective Underestimating Social Influence Underestimating the capacity of humans for evil and destructive behaviors

49. Testing

50. Testing Originally Developed from work of Trait Theorists A few important people in the field of testing Gordon Allport (Trait Theory) Eysenck and Eysenck Cattell Spearman

51. Testing A few important people in the field of testing Herman Rorschach (inkblot test) Alfred Binet (original develop of IQ)

52. Testing Which of the following was NOT an important figure in the field of testing? Gordon Allport B F Skinner’% Cattell Alfred Binet

53. Testing Who was the original developer of the IQ test? Gordon Allport B F Skinner Cattell Alfred Binet

54. Testing: Rorschach Developed by a Swiss Psychiatrist Ten (10) cards which are highly standardized A Century Old Originally suffered from a problems with validity (and possibly reliably)

55. Testing: Rorschach Solving Problems with the Rorschach John Exner developed a statistical or ‘actuarial’ version of the test called “The Comprehensive System”

56. Rorschach: Exner No longer confined to the pages of scholarly journals, the controversy over the Exner CS Rorschach has spread to the national press. The New York Times (Goode, 2001, 2004), Los Angeles Times (Mestel, 2003), and Scientific American (Lilienfeld, Wood, & Garb, 2001; see also Lilienfeld, Wood, & Garb, 2000) have carried feature articles on the debate. A scathing critique in the New York Review of Books (Crews, 2004/2005) recently called on psychologists to abandon clinical use of the test.

57. Rorschach: Exner During the past year, proponents of the Exner system have attempted to dampen the controversy. Irving Weiner, President of the Board of Trustees of the Society for Personality Assessment (SPA), published an article in the Spring issue of the Independent Practitioner (Weiner, 2005) that categorically rejected all criticisms of the CS. A few months afterward the SPA Board released a White Paper for psychologists, attorneys, and judges that broadly endorsed use of the test in clinics and courtrooms (Board of Trustees of the Society for Personality Assessment, 2005, hereafter cited as Board of Trustees, 2005).

58. Rorschach: Exner Although the debate continues over the Rorschach, here are a few notable facts: As of the early 1990’s data for over 20,000 test administrations had been collected and analyzed. Of all the projective tests, the Rorschach (by far) has the greatest data collected and greatest number of reliability and validity studies Only Projective Tests can be used for certain populations Illiterate Adults Children under a certain age, usually under about 8 to 10 years of age

59. Rorschach: Exner One persuasive reason to use projective tests such as the Rorschach: Only Projective Tests can measure subtle aspects of intelligence Only Projective Tests can detect psychopathology from constellations that include non-obvious items Only Projective Tests can be used for certain populations Only Projective Tests can measure the Locus of Control Properly

60. Testing: Factor Analysis Based on Correlation Part of a family of related statistical techniques including Principal Components Analysis Cluster Analysis Discriminant Analysis Canonical Correlation How “TiVO” predicts what you might “like” to watch on television How certain music services such as iTunes predict what songs you might like

61. Testing: Factor Analysis Associated with “Data Mining” on the Internet Controversial in commercial use because of an invasion of privacy Allows prediction of traits, conduct, or behavior from non-obvious items For example, FA could be used for racist or sexist purposes, or to discriminate on basis of religion

62. Testing: Factor Analysis Associated with many psychological tests, notably Eysenck Personality Inventory MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) Cattell’s 16PF Five Factor Personality Inventory Jackson Personality Inventory And many others

63. Factor Analysis: Cattel Cattell’s 16PF (Sixteen Personality Factors) was the original “factor analysis” based personality test

64. Testing: Factor Analysis Which of the following was the original factor analysis based personality inventory? Eysenck Personality Inventory MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) Cattell’s 16PF Five Factor Personality Inventory

65. Testing: MMPI The MMPI was developed by the University of Minnesota in the 1940’s by Starke R. Hathaway, PhD, and J. C. McKinley, Based on Discriminant Analysis as well as Factor Analysis Using Discrim can predict “group membership” using “constellations” of answers Has non-obvious items that contribute to constellations Has “Lie Scales”

66. Testing: MMPI Structure of the MMPI: Built on “constellations” of answers to questions, including obvious and non-obvious (subtle) questions MMPI-2 has 567 Items, all true or false, takes about 1 to 2 hours to complete Atheoretical: psychological theories (Freud, Behaviorism, etc.) have no meaning for the MMPI (only Empirical Data)

67. Testing: MMPI Which of the following does NOT describe the MMPI: Constellations true or false Projective Atheoretical

68. Testing: MMPI [To Be Continued]

69. Next Time: Be prepared for a PopQuiz Wrap Up Chapter 15 Wrap up MMPI (p. 616) Reliability and Validity of tests Five Factor Personality Model (p. 618-622) Locus of Control (p. 625) Martin E. P. Seligman (p. 628) Start Chapter 16 (Psychopathology)

70. Finis

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