Dihybrid crosses and gene linkage
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Dihybrid crosses and gene linkage. HL Genetics Topic 10.2. Assessment Statements. 10.2.1 Calculate and predict the genotypic and phenotypic ratio of offspring of dihybrid crosses involving unlinked autosomal genes. 10.2.2 Distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes .

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Dihybrid crosses and gene linkage

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Dihybrid crosses and gene linkage

Dihybrid crosses and gene linkage

HL Genetics Topic 10.2


Assessment statements

Assessment Statements

  • 10.2.1 Calculate and predict the genotypic and phenotypic ratio of offspring of dihybrid crosses involving unlinked autosomal genes.

  • 10.2.2 Distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes.

  • 10.2.3 Explain how crossing over between non-sister chromatids of a homologous pair in prophase I can result in an exchange of alleles.

  • 10.2.4 Define linkage group.

  • 10.2.5 Explain an example of a cross between two linked genes.

  • 10.2.6 Identify which of the offspring are recombinants in a dihybrid cross involving linked genes.


Dihybrid crosses

Dihybrid crosses

  • Mendel’s Peas

    • Seed shape – some round, others wrinkled (allele for round is dominant)

    • Seed colour– some green, others yellow (allele for yellow is dominant)

  • Mendel crossed true breeding plants with each other

    • One parent: homozygous dominant for both traits (round and yellow seeds) RRYY

    • Other parent: homozygous recessive for both traits (wrinkled and green) rryy


When both parents are homozgous all the f1 offspring are the same genotype and phenotype

Whenboth parents are homozgous – all the F1 offspring are the samegenotype and phenotype

  • R = allele for round peas

  • r = allele for wrinkled peas

  • Y = allele for yellow peas

  • y = allele for green peas


Cross the f1 double heterozygous

Cross the F1 double heterozygous

  • Allowing heterozygous offspring to self-pollinate

Phenotype Ratio is:

9

3

3

1


Dihybrid phenotype ratios

DihybridPhenotype Ratios

Homozygous parents

AABB x aabb

All F1 offspring the same

Heterozygous parents

AaBb x AaBb

9:3:3:1 phenotype ratio

9AB 3Ab 3aB 1ab

  • A new shuffling of the alleles has created a new combination which does not match either of the parents’ genotypes. Recombinants


Autosomes and sex chromosomes

Autosomes and sex chromosomes

  • Sex chromosomes: X and Y (one pair)

  • Autosomes:any chromosome not X or Y (22 pairs)

  • Sex-linked gene is located on a sex chromosome.

  • Autosomal gene is located on one of the autosomes.

  • On which type of chromosome is the gene for haemophiliafound?

  • So, the gene is known as ___.

  • On which type of chromosome is the gene for protein production in the pancreas found?

  • So, the gene is known as ___.


Exchange of alleles by crossing over

Exchange of alleles by crossing over

  • Two non-sister chromatids can swap segments of their DNA during prophase I of meiosis.

  • This increases genetic variety of chromosomes in gametes


Dihybrid crosses and gene linkage

There are nowthought to be 20,500 humangenes on 23 chromosomesSource: Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard (2008, January 15). Human Gene Count Tumbles

  • There must beapprox 1000 genes on each chromosome.


Linkage group

Linkage group

  • Any two genes which are found on the same chromosome are said to be linked to each other.

  • Linked genes are usually passed on to the next generation together.

  • Linkage group - groups of genes on the same chromosome inherited together

  • Linked genes are the exception to Mendel’s law of independent assortment


Linked genes

Linked genes

Fruit fly gene for body color is in the same linkage group as the gene for wing length

Alleles are

G – grey body

g – black body

L – long wings

l – short wings

Notation of linkedgenesis

G L

G L

The two horizontal bars symbolize homologous chromosomes and that the locus of G is on the same chromosome as L

G L

G L


Offspring of a dihybrid cross

Offspring of a dihybrid cross

A cross between homozygous fruit flies

GGLLx ggll

Grey body & long wings x Black body, short wings

F1 flies will be all heterozygous for both of the traits

GgLl

Phenotype : Grey body & long wings

If these F1 heterozygotes were allowed to reproduce together the ratio of phenotypes produced would be expected to be

9:3:3:1


Recombinants

Recombinants

After the F2 flieswereidentified the phenotypeswere;

This is far from the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio

whichshouldgive 900300 300 100

This is a signthat the genes are on the same chromosome (genes are linked)


Offspring of a dihybrid cross using linkage notation

Offspring of a dihybridcrossusing linkage notation

A cross between homozygous fruit flies

GLgl

GLx gl

Grey body & long wings x Black body, short wings

F1 flies will be all heterozygous for both of the traits

GL

gl

Phenotype : Grey body & long wings

If these F1 heterozygotes were allowed to reproduce together the ratio of phenotypes produced would be expected to be

9:3:3:1


Offspring of a dihybrid cross using linkage notation1

Offspring of a dihybridcrossusing linkage notation

If these F1 heterozygotesmake gametes

The gametes will be

GL or gl

unless crossing over happens – because the genes are on the same chromosome

The F1 willcontain more thanexpected of thesegenotypes

GL GLglgl

G L

G L

GL glGLgl


Offspring of a dihybrid cross using linkage notation2

Offspring of a dihybridcrossusing linkage notation

If The F1 willcontain more thanexpected of thesegenotypes

The Grey short wing and black long wingphenotypes

Are Recombinants -

GL GLglgl

G L

G L

GL glGLgl


Polygenic inheritance

Polygenic Inheritance

Topic 10.3


Assessment statements1

Assessment Statements

  • 10.3.1 Define polygenic inheritance.

  • 10.3.2 Explain that polygenic inheritance can contribute to continuous variation using two examples, one of which must be human skin colour.


Polygenic inheritance1

Polygenic Inheritance

  • when two or more genes influence the expression of one trait

    Eg Skin Colour, Height


Continuous and discontinuous variation

Continuous and discontinuous variation

  • When an array of possible phenotypes can be produced, it is called continuous variation

    • Examples: skin color, height, body shape, and intelligence

    • These traits are also influenced by environmental conditions

  • When only a number of phenotypes can be produced, it is called discontinuous variation

    • Examples: earlobe attachment, blood group


Graphical representation

Graphical representation

Continuousvariation

Discontinuous variation


Eye color

Eye Color

  • Iris is made up of zones, rings, streaks or speckles of different colored pigments with varying intensities

  • What color are your eyes, really?

  • Since there is so much variety, eye color must be influenced by multiple alleles and has continuous variation.


Skin color

Skin color

How does the existence of multiple allelescontrolling skin colourresult in the appearance of manydifferentshades of skin colour in humans?


Thoughts

Thoughts

  • How do people of varying degrees of skin color relocated to parts of the world that receive differing amounts of sunlight get vitamin D? How do others fight off the sun?

  • Should there be equal esteem for all humans?

  • Why is human diversity so often used to divide and discriminate, rather than be appreciated, respected, and celebrated?


Polygenic inheritance of color in wheat

Polygenic inheritance of color in wheat.

Kernalcolor in wheat is determined by two genes.

A range of colors occur, from white to dark red, depending on the combinations of alleles.

Dark red plants are homozygous  AABB and white plants are homozygous aabb.  


Dihybrid crosses and gene linkage

Crossing individuals with the phenotype extremes yield offspring that are a 'blend' of the two parents.

When these homozygous phenotypes are crossed

AABB x aabb

Dark x white

the F1 offspring are all double heterozygousAaBb.


But what happens when the two double heterozygous genotypes are crossed

But what happens when the two double heterozygous genotypes are crossed?  

  • Parent Phenotypes: all brown

  • Genotypes: AaBb x AbBb

  • Punnet square:

There is no blending in the offspring. Offspring can be more extreme than either parent

There are grades of colour – evidence of polygenic inheritance.


Skin color1

Skin color

How does the existence of multiple allelescontrolling skin colourresult in the appearance of manydifferentshades of skin colour in humans?


Human skin colour is controlled by multiple alleles and the environment

Human skin colouriscontrolled by multiple alleles (and the environment)

  • It is known that at least three genes control skin color, let’s call them genes A, B, and C.

  • Someone who is AABBCC would have very dark skin color and someone who is aabbcc would have very light skin color.

  • If they got married and had children, their children would all be AaBbCc and have mid-brown skin.

  • If two of those people would get married and have children, the Punnett square would look like the one above.


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