Red blotch disease
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Red Blotch Disease. Stan DeMarta VWT 35 Spring 2014. Presentation Outline. Introduction/Overview Discovery Biology Symptoms Damage. Distribution and Propagation Management History Conclusions. Introduction/Overview. Red Blotch Disease is a newly discovered disease

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Red blotch disease

Red Blotch Disease

Stan DeMarta

VWT 35 Spring 2014


Presentation outline

Presentation Outline

  • Introduction/Overview

  • Discovery

  • Biology

  • Symptoms

  • Damage

  • Distribution and Propagation

  • Management

  • History

  • Conclusions


Introduction overview

Introduction/Overview

Red Blotch Disease is a newly discovered disease

Not a “New” disease

Presents similarly to Leafroll disease

Identified as a viral disease

Affects the quality of grapes more than the quantity

Researchers, Vineyard Managers and Nurseries very concerned


Discovery

Discovery

First discovered in the UC Davis research vineyards in Oakville, CA (Napa AVA) in 2008

Visually misdiagnosed as Leafroll Disease (but assay tests were negative)

In 2012 a new Virus found, highly correlates with the symptoms


Biology

Biology

  • Grape Red Blotch associated Virus (GRBaV)

    • DNA Virus in the Geniniviridae Family, two strains identified

    • Largest family of plant viruses

    • Commonly vectored by insects

    • 2012 PCR assay test has been developed for Identification

    • Much is still unknown about the virus


Symptoms and damage

Symptoms and Damage

  • Appears late August through September

  • Irregular blotches on leaf blades and basal portions of shoots

  • Eventually the entire leaf becomes red

  • Vineyard Distribution

    • Sporadic, suggesting a vector in the field

  • Similar but not identical to Leafroll Disease

  • Important to get vine tested to positively identify disease


Symptoms

Symptoms

  • Bad News

    • Infects all Varietals (Red, White, wine, table)

      • No varietals have been found to be totally resistant

    • Infects all Rootstock

      • No rootstock has been found to be totally resistant

    • Infects Young and Old Vines


Damage

Damage

  • More Bad News

    • Affects Grape Quality

      • Can decrease brix by 3 to 6 counts

      • Tritratable acidity is significantly increased while overall pH is only moderately reduced

      • Delayed ripening


Damage1

Damage

  • Good News (Maybe)

    • No noticeable affect on yield

      • Long term studies not yet complete

    • Does not kill the vine in the short term

      • Long term studies not yet complete


Distribution and propagation

Distribution and Propagation

  • Found in all major growing areas in North America

    • Unconfirmed in Italy

  • Most well known form of propagation has been from grafting in nurseries.

  • There is evidence that there is an insect vector, but no vector has been isolated

  • Propagation through human or mechanical means does NOT occur.


Economic impact

Economic Impact

  • Too soon to quantify

    • How widespread will it become?

    • What will be the cost of Management?

    • What’s the cost of lower quality?


Management

Management

  • There is no cure! Goal: Don’t get it in the first place.

  • Nurseries: Certified nurseries now have the tools to eliminate propagation (PCR assay Testing).

    • Insist on verified clean vines and rootstock.

  • Don’t propagate unverified vines/rootstock by field grafting or transporting

  • “Ideally” remove vines known to be infected. May be difficult economically.

  • It is recommended that insecticides NOT be used.

    • Vector not known

    • A wide spectrum insecticide will disrupt insect ecology


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • There are still many questions


Conclusions1

Conclusions

  • There are still many questions

    • What are the insect vectors?


Conclusions2

Conclusions

  • There are still many questions

    • What are the insect vectors?

    • What are all the paths of propagation?


Conclusions3

Conclusions

  • There are still many questions

    • What are the insect vectors?

    • What are all the paths of propagation?

    • Are there differences in varietal susceptibility/tolerance?


Conclusions4

Conclusions

  • There are still many questions

    • What are the insect vectors?

    • What are all the paths of propagation?

    • Are there differences in varietal susceptibility/tolerance?

    • What is the latency of the disease?


Conclusions5

Conclusions

  • There are still many questions

    • What are the insect vectors?

    • What are all the paths of propagation?

    • Are there differences in varietal susceptibility/tolerance?

    • What is the latency of the disease?

    • Can resistant or tolerant varietals be created?


Conclusions6

Conclusions

  • There are still many questions

    • What are the insect vectors?

    • What are all the paths of propagation?

    • Are there differences in varietal susceptibility/tolerance?

    • What is the latency of the disease?

    • Can resistant or tolerant varietals be created?

    • Can resistant rootstock be created?


Conclusions7

Conclusions

  • There are still many questions

    • What are the insect vectors?

    • What are all the paths of propagation?

    • Are there differences in varietal susceptibility/tolerance?

    • What is the latency of the disease?

    • Can resistant or tolerant varietals be created?

    • Can resistant rootstock be created?

    • And many more


History comparison

History comparison

  • Though there is still a lot unknown research has moved very quickly on GRBaV compared to past diseases.


Questions

Questions


References

References

  • Marc Fuchs, Cornell University, Dept. of Plant Pathology

  • http://ucanr.edu/sites/viticulture-fresno/files/157139.pdf Dr. Mysore R. Sudarshana, USDA-ARS, Dept of Plant Pathology UC Davis

  • http://iv.ucdavis.edu/Viticultural_Information/?uid=284&ds=351University of California, UC Integrated Viticulture website

  • “The Impact of Grapevine Red Blotch Virus” James A. Stamp, Ph.D. and Alan Wei, Ph.D

  • Grapevine Virus Diseases – “Grape Pet Management” Golino, Rowhani, Uyemoto


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