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Chapter 1a. Introduction to Internet and World Wide Web Part I. Terms & Definitions. Client A client is the requesting program in a client/server relationship, e.g , the user of a Web browser is effectively making client requests for pages from servers all over the Web.

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Chapter 1a

Chapter 1a

Introduction to Internet and World Wide Web

Part I

Terms definitions
Terms & Definitions


A client is the requesting program in a client/server relationship, e.g, the user of a Web browser is effectively making client requests for pages from servers all over the Web.

Chap1a Internet/WWW

Terms definitions1
Terms & Definitions


In general, a server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs in the same or other computers.

Chap1a Internet/WWW

Terms definitions2
Terms & Definitions

Web browser:

The web client, called a browser, is the software that allows you to interact with information available on the Internet. e.g Netscape Navigator, Microsoft Internet Explorer, MOSAIC.

Chap1a Internet/WWW

Terms definitions3
Terms & Definitions

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language):

HTML is a tagging language used to compose documents that will be viewed by a web browser.

It is a standard adopted so that no matter what computer platform someone is using, the web browser knows how to display the web document.

Chap1a Internet/WWW

Web Page:

A mixture of text, graphics, sound and animation in the HTML format, to make information accessible in a easy to understand format using the Internet.

Web Site:

A collection of web pages connected (linked) by Hypertext clickable links.

Web Site Storage/Hosting:

After a web site is designed it must be stored on a computer that can be accessed through the Internet and the World-Wide Web .

Chap1a Internet/WWW


It is a set of conventions governing the processing and especially the data in an electronic communications system.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol ):

TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network. They provide a few basic services that everyone needs (file transfer, electronic mail, remote logon, etc…) across a very large number of client and server systems.

Chap1a Internet/WWW

URL (Uniform Resource Locator):

The URL is a "standard" way of easily expressing the location and data type of a resource. URLs in general take the form "protocol://address" where protocol is something like HTTP, FTP, telnet, and so on, and the address is merely the server name of a given resource or page.

Chap1a Internet/WWW

DNS (Domain Name Services):

DNS refers to a network service that associates host names (alphanumeric) with their equivalent TCP/IP address. This is done by the means of a standard look-up table.


Translation from domain names: into correct TCP/IP

addresses, e.g. 

Telnet :

Telnet is the way you can access someone else's computer, assuming they have given you permission.

Chap1a Internet/WWW

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol):

SMTP is the standard protocol used to exchange Internet mail between TCP/IP hosts. “Message Handling Systems”

Chap1a Internet/WWW

Domain (s)

  • On the Internet, a domain is basically a registration category identifying geographic or purpose commonality.

  • There are seven top-level domains currently in use:

    • com - A commercial organization. The largest domain extension currently used.

    • edu - An educational establishment such as a school or university.

    • gov - A branch of the U.S government that is strictly reserved for that purpose.

    • int - An international organization such as the United Nations.

Chap1a Internet/WWW

Domain (s) (Cont.)

  • net - A network organization.

  • org - A non-profit organization.

  • mil - A branch of the U.S military that is strictly reserved for that purpose.

  • In other parts of the world the final part of the domain name represents the country in which the server is located like my for Malaysia, bb for Barbados, ca for Canada and uk for Great Britain.

  • Chap1a Internet/WWW


    • At its most basic level, theInternet is an utility connecting localized computer networks (that might exist in a lab, in a building, in a department, or on a campus) with computer networks that extend across a wider area, like a region or a continent.

    • Technically, what distinguishes the Internet is its use of a set of protocols called TCP/IP. Two recent adaptations of the Internet technology are the Intranet and the Extranet.

    • The term 'Internet' comes out of the concept of 'internetworking'

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    World-Wide Web:

    The World-Wide Web (WWW) is a pair of software applications, which allow both distribution of and access to information on the Internet. The webis not the Internet but a means of distributing and accessing the information that is on it.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW


    • "E-Commerce" (Electronic Commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially on the World-Wide Web.

    • Example of E-Commerce Website:

      Blooming-Online Florist



    Chap1a Internet/WWW


    • A firewall is a program, usually an Internet gateway server, that protects the resources of one network from users from other networks. Any enterprise will want a firewall to prevent outsiders from accessing its own private data resources.

    • There are a number of firewall screening methods. A simple one is to screen requests to make sure they come from acceptable domain names and IP addresses. Another is to not allow Telnet access into your network except for your own users.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW



    Chap1a Internet/WWW


    The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the set

    of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic

    images, sound, video, and other

    multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    Http hypertext transfer protocol

    User request document from browser.




    Display web page.



    Send request.

    Send response.



    Open connection of web server.


    Searching for the document.


    HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol):

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    Web Server:

    • Stores and transmits web documents (files). It uses the HTTP protocol to connect to other computers and distribute information.

    • Example: IIS, Apache, Sun Java System Web Server

      FTP (File Transfer Protocol):

    • FTP is the standard used to transfer files over the Internet.

    • FTP allows you to copy any kind of computer file (text, software, images, sounds, fonts, etc...) from one computer to another via a network using the Internet.

    • FTP is not platform-specific, so as long as you have a computer (DOS, Macintosh, Unix, etc.) that is connected to the Internet, you can copy files.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    ISP (Internet Service Provider):

    • An ISP is a company that provides individuals and other companies access to the Internet and other related services such as Web site development and hosting (web site storage).

    • The larger ISPs have their own high-speed leased lines so that they are less dependent on the telecommunication providers and can provide better service to their customers.

    • List of Internet Service Providers in Malaysia

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    Java Applet:

    • An applet is a small program run on the Web, using Java, the object-oriented programming language.

    • It can be can be sent along with a Web page to a user.

    • It can perform interactive animations, immediate calculations without having to send a user’s request back to the server.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    Java applet examples
    Java Applet- Examples

    • Football Game

    • Traffic Simulation

    • Inner Solar System Model

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    XML (eXtensible Markup Language):

    • XML is a flexible way to create information formats and shared on the World Wide Web, intranets, and elsewhere,

    • Example, computer makers might agree on a standard or common way to describe the information about a computer product (processor speed, memory size, …) and then describe the product information format with XML.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    XML (eXtensible Markup Language):

    • Such a standard way of describing data would enable a user to send an intelligent agent (a program) to each computer maker's Web site, gather data, and then make a valid comparison.

    • XML can be used by any individual or group of individuals or companies that wants to share information in a consistent way.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    XML (eXtensible Markup Language):

    • XML is currently a formal recommendation from the World-Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as a way to make the Web a more versatile tool.

    • XML is similar to the language of today's Web pages, HTML in that both contain markup symbols to describe the contents of a page or file. HTML, however, describes the content of a Web page (mainly text and graphic images) only in terms of how it is to be displayed and interacted with. Example: a <P> starts a new paragraph.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    XML (eXtensible Markup Language):

    • XML describes the content in terms of what data is being described. e.g., a <PHONENUM> could indicate that the data that followed it was a phone number.

    • This means that an XML file can be processed purely as data by a program or it can be stored with similar data on another computer or, like an HTML file, that it can be displayed.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    How xml codes look like
    How XML codes look like



    <body>Don't forget me this


    To understand more about XML:

    W3Schools- Learning XML

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    History of the Internet:

    • The Internet grew out of many developments in computer networking and telecommunications research.

    • Early projects undertaken in early 1960’s by the US military (known as DARPAnet).

    • Started with a dozen of Networked computer systems of universities and institutions, allowing computers to be shared.

    • Allowing fast communication between researchers through Emails.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    History of the Internet (Cont.)

    • Only people in the government, military and academic had access to the network.

    • In 1991, the National Science Foundation (NFS) gradually started backing off from its subsidy of the backbone network, then allowed commercial access to the internet.

    • With commercial access to the Internet, businesses and all kinds of agencies began to use the Internet to communicate, exchange data and distribute information;

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    History of the Internet (Cont.)

    • A host of businesses called Internet Service Providers (ISPs) sprang up. ISPs provide dialup access to the Internet; an individual or a business opens an account with the ISP, dials into the ISP's computer and via the ISP's computer connects to the Internet.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    History of the Internet (Cont.)

    • Internet traffic grew,

      • Many businesses spent heavily to improve the internet, therefore to better service their customers.

      • Big competition among communication carriers, hardware and software suppliers.

      • As a result, Internet’s bandwidth climbed high, & cost went down!

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    History of the World-Wide Web

    • WWW allows computer users to locate and display multimedia-based documents,

    • Introduced in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee of CERN (Geneva).

    • Today’s Internet mixes computing and communications technologies.

    • It makes our work easier.

    • It is changing the nature of the way business is done.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    History of the World-Wide Web (Cont.)

    • It makes information instantly and conveniently available to anyone with a connection

    • Communities can stay in touch with one another.

    • Researchers can learn of scientific and academic breakthroughs worldwide.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    2. Internet Applications

    • Internet Protocols

      HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol):

      which are the basis for information exchange on the Internet), HTTP is an application protocol.

      HTTPs (“s” stands for security):

      is the same way as HTTP but used securely.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    FTP (File Transfer Protocol)


    Other alternative in the Market: Terminal Services, PC Anywhere

    • Email (Electronic Mail)

    • E-mail is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication.

    • you can send messages (text, graphic images and sound files) as attachments.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    • Email (Electronic Mail) (Cont.)

    • E-mail was one of the first uses of the Internet. Probably it is still the most widely used internet application.

    • A large percentage of the total traffic over the Internet is e-mail.

    • It uses Simple Mail Transfer Protocol orSMTP.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    • Search Engines

    • Web sites that sort through by keywords and categories:

      • Google (

      • Yahoo (

      • Lycos (

      • Altavista (

    • Store information in databases.

    • Returns list of sites as hyperlinks.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    • Search Engines (Cont.)

    • Meta-search engines:

      • No Database maintenance.

      • Combine results from multiple search engines.

      • Microsoft MSN:

      • IE5.5 has a built-in meta-search engine that is accessed by clicking the search button on the toolbar.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    3. Internet Architecture & Topologies

    • Internet Service Providers (ISPs)

    • To get to the internet we need to pay “people at access points”, are the ISPs

    • Because they have high speed connections to the internet, and dedicated hardware.

    • They sell their services back to users like Email, web storage, slower internet access dialup or dedicated line.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    • Domains

      Internet registration category identification for geographic and Common purposes, e.g. .com,, others like,

    • Intranets

    • What is an Intranet?Intranets are private corporate information and collaboration systems that use Internet software and standards.

    • Why an IntranetThe Intranet can increase market share, profitability, and efficiency.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    • Why Intranet (Cont.)

    • Ideal place for publishing continuously updated Corporate information.

    • Powerful, not expensive communications alternative that can provide information anywhere at anytime.

    • Intranet technology can be used across wide area networks.

    • Web server software inter-operates well.

    • Web servers do not need large capital expenditures in hardware.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    • How can Intranet help a company?

      Intranets can be relatively easy to install, and inexpensive to administer. Also eliminate Printing, and out-of-date information

    • Procedures Manuals

    • Company Practices

    • Company phone book

    • Catalog and Inventory lists

    • Employee benefits information (Health-care benefits)

    • Bulletin boards

    • Job Postings

    • In-house newsletters or publications

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    • How can Intranet help a company? (Cont.)

    • Training

    • Presentations

    • Order Processing

    • Expense Report

    • Sales Force Automation ( Offsite employees conducting sales, marketing, … can access all the companies information remotely easily and in a cost effective way)

    • Help-desk and technical support

    • Company suppliers information (What each supplier is quoting at each specific location)

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    • How can Intranet help a company? (Cont.)

    • Access search and sort database records dynamically by converting databases to HTML on the fly, in SQL or other formats.

    • Sort through thousands of documents and quickly retrieve the information you need with the proper search engine.

    • Video Conferencing Putting such applications on an Intranet can serve a large group of users at a substantially low cost.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    • Example of Intranet

      College IT Information Portal


      Student Project Management System-Diploma


      Student Project Management System-Degree


    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    • Extranets

      What is an Extranet?

    • An Extranet is a collaborative network that uses Internet technology to link businesses with their suppliers, customers or other businesses that share common goals.

    • An Extranet can be viewed either as part of a company's Intranet that is made accessible to other companies or as a collaborative Internet connection with other companies.

    • The shared information can be accessible only to the collaborating parties or can be publicly accessible.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    Extranet applications (some examples):

    • Private newsgroups that cooperating companies use to share valuable experiences and ideas.

    • Training programs or other educational material that companies develop and share.

    • Shared product catalogs accessible only to wholesalers or those "in the trade".

    • Project management and control for companies that are part of a common work project.

    • An Extranet usually requires a degree of security and privacy from competitors.

    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    Example of Extranet

    TNB Livewire



    Chap1a Internet/WWW

    Using forum
    Using Forum

    How to Post a Question

    Chap1a Internet/WWW