World War I 1914-1920. Part I: The Great War P rior to reviewing this Power Point... 1) Read pages 649-653 2) Answer the P art I guide questions
Objective…Describe the underlying causes of World War I.
Create an analogy that demonstrates your understanding of the above WW I causes.
World War I is like....
The Great War
Objective…Outline the chain of events that triggered the start of the war.
was Bosnian nationalist trained in Serbia.
Literally - A “blank check” has no value written on the check, but is signed. The person writing the check writes the value on the check.
Figuratively - A “blank check” refers to unconditional support... Germany was offering anything that Austria-Hungry would need to fight Serbia.
The Schlieffen Plan was a German military strategy designed so that Germany would win a war simultaneously fought with France and Russia. In a war with France and Russia, Germany would fight on two fronts and be weakened by dividing it’s forces between the two fronts (Eastern Front: Russia / Western Front: France). The Schlieffen Plan was designed to knock out France quickly and avoid a two front war. Making matters more difficult for Germany were France’s defenses along its eastern border. Any direct assault on France would run into these defenses and slow the German offensive. The Schlieffen Plan was designed as a surprise attack through Holland and Belgium that would avoid the French defenses and defeat France quickly.
Watch the following...
Homework: Using the article “Causes of WW I”, class notes & your text, create a detailed chronological flow chart summarizing the chain of events that led Europe into WWI. – Due tomorrow
The Great War
Although WW I began in 1914 in Europe, the U.S. did not join the war, but instead pursued a policy of neutrality until 1917.
Objective…Summarize the chain of events through which America entered World War I.
Wilson declares neutrality…
“impartial in thought as well as in action”
Although not an international law the principle of freedom of the seas dates back to the early 1600s. The understanding was that the seas are international territory and that all nations are free to conduct trade without interference from other nations.
In the final year of WW I, President Wilson articulated the principal of freedom of seas in his Fourteen Points. In a speech to the Congress, President Wilson stated:
“Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of International covenants.”
During WW I both Great Britain & Germany routinely violated the principle of freedom of seas.
Great Britain set up a naval blockade around German coastal ports and limited both humanitarian supplies (food & medicine) and war supplies from being shipped to Germany.
Germany used unrestricted submarine warfare as a part of it’s strategy to win WW I. Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink ships without warning.
1,198 dead… 128 Americans dead
In 1915, Germany declared the waters around Britain a war zone and started unrestricted submarine warfare. The U.S. called Germany’s actions “an indefensible violation of neutral rights.” and vowed to hold Germany responsible .
-The size of the army doubles & the National Guard is put under federal control.
-The Navy expands by building battleships, destroyers & cruisers.
The National Security League - A conservative group backed by bankers & industrialists. ...Why would this group support “preparedness?”
The Zimmerman Note (March,1917)…
Wilson’s justification for war...
- World War I would be...
“The war to end all wars” - Woodrow Wilson
- World War I would be...
“The war fought to make the world safe for democracy” - Woodrow Wilson