Removal of materials from the blood
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Removal of Materials from the Blood. Liver, Lungs, Kidneys. Role of the Liver. Conserves useful substances by the liver. It breaks down plasma proteins and synthesises new ones.

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Removal of Materials from the Blood

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Removal of materials from the blood

Removal of Materials from the Blood

Liver, Lungs, Kidneys


Role of the liver

Role of the Liver

  • Conserves useful substances by the liver. It breaks down plasma proteins and synthesises new ones.

  • Detoxifies toxic materials by altering chemically, by chemical breakdown, by chemical attachment and by the uptake by macrophages.


The liver

The Liver


Chemical alteration

Chemical Alteration

  • Active molecules are rendered inactive by being chemically altered.

  • Products are excreted in bile or released into the bloodstream and removed by the kidneys.


Chemical breakdown

Chemical Breakdown

  • Hydrogen peroxide broken down into water and oxygen by the enzyme catalase.

  • Alcohol is broken down by a series of enzyme controlled reactions into Acetyl CoA which is respiratory substrate.

  • High alcohol levels cannot be broken down and the liver becomes damaged – cirrhosis.


Chemical attachment

Chemical Attachment

  • Conjugation

  • Molecular label is added to the waste product.

  • The label is the amino acid glycine.

  • Liver cells then recognise the substance as waste and is excreted by the kidneys.


Uptake by macrophages

Uptake by Macrophages

  • Macrophages line the liver’s blood vessels and remove unwanted substances by phagocytosis.


Jaundice

Jaundice

  • Bilirubin accumulates in the bloodstream if

    • The liver suffers a disease e.g. hepatitis

    • Bile duct becomes blocked

    • Excessively high rate of RBC destruction

      As the conc of bilirubin increases the skin and the whites of the eyes become yellow and the person suffers from jaundice.


Liver question

Liver question


Urea production

Urea Production

  • Urea is produced when excess amino acids are broken down by a process called DEAMINATION.

  • They are broken down into ammonia and an organic acid.

  • The highly toxic ammonia enters the ornithine cycle where it reacts with carbon dioxide to produce less toxic urea.

  • The organic acid enters the Kreb’s cycle and is used in respiration.


Deamination

Deamination

Amino acid

Organic acid enters Krebs Cycle

Ammonia enters ornithine cycle

Urea


Ornithine cycle

Ornithine Cycle


Bilirubin

Bilirubin

  • Haemoglobin from RBC is broken down into a yellow pigment called bilirubin.

  • It is released into the blood giving plasma it’s faint yellow colour.

  • Bilirubin is then removed from blood plasma by liver cells.

  • A molecule of another substance is attached and the conjugated form of bilirubin is added to bile and becomes bile pigment.


Bilirubin excretion

Bilirubin Excretion

  • Bile pigment does not aid digestion

  • It is released in bile as a form of excretion.

  • It is converted by bacteria to a brown pigment which gives faeces it’s colour.

  • Complete the diagram in your sheets.


Role of the lungs

Role of the Lungs

  • Carbon dioxide is produced in cells by respiration.

  • It is carried to the lungs by the circulatory system.

  • CO2 is carried in the blood plasma in the form of bicarbonate ions.

  • The bicarbonate ions enter the RBC and combine with H ions to form carbonic acid.

  • This is then broken down by an enzyme…


Removal of carbon dioxide

Removal of Carbon Dioxide

This is an example of excretion (elimination of waste metabolic products)


Role of the lungs1

Role of the Lungs

  • H2CO3 H2O + CO2

  • The conc of carbon dioxide is now higher in the blood plasma than in the alveoli and so diffuses into the lungs.


Role of kidneys

Role of Kidneys

  • ULTRAFILTRATION OF BLOOD

  • REABSORPTION OF USEFUL SUBSTANCES FROM FILTRATE


Removal of materials from the blood

KIDNEY

RENAL ARTERY

RENAL VEIN

URETER

BLADDER

URETHRA


Removal of materials from the blood

cortex

medulla


Removal of materials from the blood

GLOMERULUS

DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE

RENAL ARTERY

BOWMAN’S CAPSULE

PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE

RENAL VEIN

LOOP OF HENLE

BLOOD CAPILLARY

COLLECTING DUCT


Ultrafiltration

Ultrafiltration

  • Renal artery carries blood containing waste products.

  • It branches into the tiny capillaries of the glomerulus.

  • Products such as water, glucose, urea and salt are filtered out into the Bowman’s capsule due to blood being at high pressure.


Basement membrane filter

Basement Membrane Filter

  • Pores in the basement membrane allow the rapid passage of glucose, salts, water and urea into the Bowman’s Capsule.

  • Large molecules such as plasma proteins are prevented from leaving the bloodstream.


Reabsorption

Reabsorption

  • Most water is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream along with glucose and any salts that are needed.

  • Urea is not reabsorbed and passes into the collecting duct with excess water and salt.

  • Urea is carried away from the body in urine.


Proximal convoluted tubule

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

  • Reabsorption of

    • Glucose

    • Salts

    • water


Loop of henle

Loop of Henle

  • Water reabsorbed by osmosis in both the descending and ascending limbs.


Distal convoluted tubule

Distal Convoluted Tubule

  • Reabsorption of

    • Salts (sodium chloride)

    • Water (small quantities)


Collecting duct

Collecting Duct

  • Reabsorption of

    • Water to bring blood water conc back to normal

      Controlled by the hormone ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)

      Nitrogenous Excretion!!


Nephron question

Nephron Question


Osmoregulation adh

Osmoregulation & ADH


Removal of materials from the blood

ADH

  • Anti-diuretic Hormone

  • Increases the permeability of the proximal convoluted tubule and the collecting ducts to water.

  • More ADH, more reabsorption, less urine.

  • This is a form of homeostasis.


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