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Diabstraksikan oleh : soemarno , psdl ppsub , desember 2012. INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index. LINGKUNGAN PERAIRAN. Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL . KUALITAS AIR. It’s a simple fact - we can’t live without water.

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Indeks kelestarian lingkungan environmental sustainability index

Diabstraksikanoleh:

soemarno, psdlppsub, desember 2012

INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN =Environmental Sustainability Index

LINGKUNGAN PERAIRAN

BahanKajianpada MK. PSDAL


KUALITAS AIR

It’s a simple fact - we can’t live without water.

People use it every day for drinking, washing and cooking, as well as for irrigating crops and generating electricity. Water is also essential for maintaining the health of natural systems, which in turn support us.

There are many actions to take to use water wisely at home and in the garden to help secure water for our future.

Sumber: http://www.livinggreener.gov.au/water)


KUALITAS AIR

Kualitas air mencerminkankarakteristikkimia, fisikadanbiologis air.

It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.

It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact and drinking water.

The parameters for water quality are determined by the intended use. Work in the area of water quality tends to be focused on water that is treated for human consumption, industrial use, or in the environment.

Diunduhdari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


KUALITAS AIR AMBIENT

Environmental water quality, also called ambient water quality, relates to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and oceans. Water quality standards for surface waters vary significantly due to different environmental conditions, ecosystems, and intended human uses.

Toxic substances and high populations of certain micro-organisms can present a health hazard for non-drinking purposes such as irrigation , swimming , fishing, rafting , boating, and industrial uses. These conditions may also affect wildlife, which use the water for drinking or as a habitat. Modern water quality laws generally specify protection of fisheries and recreational use and require, as a minimum, retention of current quality standards.

Diunduhdari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


Parameter kualitaslingkungan air tawar

Freshwater environmental quality parameters are the natural and man-made chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics of rivers, lakes and ground-waters, the ways they are measured and the ways that they change.

The values or concentrations attributed to such parameters can be used to describe the pollution status of an environment, its biotic status or to predict the likelihood or otherwise of a particular organisms being present.

Monitoring of environmental quality parameters is a key activity in managing the environment, restoring polluted environments and anticipating the effects of man-made changes on the environment.

Diunduhdari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freshwater_environmental_quality_parameters ……………… 28/11/2012


KONSUMSI MANUSIA

Contaminants that may be in untreated water include microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria; inorganic contaminants such as salts and metals; organic chemical contaminants from industrial processes and petroleum use; pesticides and herbicides; and radioactive contaminants.

Water quality depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse (which may lower the level of the water).

In urbanized areas throughout the world, water purification technology is used in municipal water systems to remove contaminants from the source water (surface water or groundwater) before it is distributed to homes, businesses, schools and other users. Water drawn directly from a stream, lake, or aquifer and that has no treatment will be of uncertain quality.

Diunduhdari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


PENGGUNAAN AIR:

DOMESTIK DAN INDUSTRI

Dissolved minerals may affect suitability of water for a range of industrial and domestic purposes.

The most familiar of these is probably the presence of ions of calcium and magnesium which interfere with the cleaning action of soap, and can form hard sulfate and soft carbonate deposits in water heaters or boilers.

Hard water may be softened to remove these ions. The softening process often substitutes sodium cations.

Hard water may be preferable to soft water for human consumption, since health problems have been associated with excess sodium and with calcium and magnesium deficiencies. Softening may sacrifice nutrition for cleaning effectiveness

Diunduhdari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


Water quality indicators
Water Quality Indicators

We will now take a look at the water quality indicators.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


ALKALINITY

Alkalinity refers to the water’s ability to neutralize acids.

Alkalinity is produced by minerals such as limestone.

Limestone is a type of ocean sediment composed of calcium carbonate.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Limestone bedrock areas often have caves and sinkholes known as karst
Limestone bedrock areas often have caves and sinkholes, known as Karst.

Water with low alkalinity is usually acidic.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Ammonia
Ammonia known as

Ammonia is produced by the decay of organic matter and animal waste.

Ammonia is toxic to most aquatic life, especially at high pH.

Bacteria readily convert ammonia to nitrate.

(a plant nutrient)

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Ammonia1
Ammonia known as

Ammonia is a form of nitrogen and part of the Nitrogen Cycle.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


BACTERIA known as

Most bacteria are important in nutrient and other organic cycles.

Excess nutrients cause algal blooms.

As algae die and decay, the high bacterial load rapidly consumes dissolved oxygen.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Certain types of bacteria indicate animal and human waste pollution.

Escherichia coli are coliform bacteria found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. Most strains are harmless but one E.coli strain can cause severe diarrhea and kidney damage.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Oksigen pollution.Terlarut

Dissolved oxygen is a product of photosynthesis and diffusion.

The warmer the water, the less oxygen it can hold.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Oksigen pollution.Terlarut

Most organisms need at least 5 or 6 ppm of oxygen in order to survive.

Even cold water rarely contains more than 15 ppm. Summer is often a time of oxygen stress for aquatic organisms.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Konduktivitas pollution.

Conductivity measures the water’s ability to conduct an electrical current.

Pure water is a poor conductor.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Konduktivitas pollution.

The addition of dissolved solids, especially salts, increases the conductivity of water.

Electrical current is measured using a conductivity meter.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Kesadahan pollution.

Hardness refers to the concentration of calcium and magnesium in water.

Hard water has high concentrations of these elements. Soft water has low concentrations.

Water hardness often originates from limestone.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Nitrat pollution.

Nitrate is a primary plant nutrient.

Nitrate is water soluble and moves easily from surface to groundwater.

Excess nitrate causes algal blooms that reduce water quality.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Under normal conditions, the nitrogen cycle keeps the amount of available nitrogen in balance with the demands.

However, excessive use of fertilizers and nutrient rich sewage release have created a surplus of nitrate.

The result is eutrophication from excess algae and bacteria with reduced dissolved oxygen.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Pestisida of available nitrogen in balance with the demands.

These chemicals are very complex.

Effects on aquatic organisms – Moderately to highly toxic to mammals, molluscs, aquatic insects, amphibians and fish.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


pH of available nitrogen in balance with the demands.

pH is the measure of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration.

The pH scale is zero to 14. Seven is neutral, below seven is acidic, and above seven is basic (or alkaline).

Most aquatic organisms exist within a pH range of 5.5 to 9.5.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form a weak acid called carbonic acid.

pH tolerance for most aquatic life

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Phosphate carbonic acid.

Phosphate’s concentrations in clean water is generally low; however, phosphorus is used extensively in fertilizer and other chemicals.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Phosphate carbonic acid.

The primary sources of phosphates to surface water are detergents, fertilizers, and natural mineral deposits.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Phosphate carbonic acid.

High levels of phosphate can over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae.

This in turn, will cause high DO consumption and death to fish and many aquatic organisms.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Salinity carbonic acid.

Salinity refers to the salt concentration in water, mostly sodium chloride.

Salinity is historically measured in parts per thousand (ppt) or grams per liter.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Salinity
Salinity carbonic acid.

Saltwater can cause problems when it replaces fresh groundwater near the coastal areas.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Sediment
Sediment carbonic acid.

Erosion causes loose soil to enter the waterways

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Sediment1
Sediment carbonic acid.

Suspended sediment blocks sunlight to plants and reduces dissolved oxygen.

As sediments settle, they can smother bottom (benthic)

organisms.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


TEMPERATURE carbonic acid.

Temperature is measured in Fahrenheit and Celsius degrees.

Temperature can be measured using field thermometers but digital probes are much more accurate.

Most aquatic organisms live within a temperature range of +32º F (+0º C) to 90º F (32º C).

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Rapid temperature change and temperature extremes can stress aquatic organisms.

Temperature affects the oxygen-carrying capacity of water.

14 Dissolved Oxygen (ppm)

12

10

8

6

4

____________________________________

Winter Summer

As the water warms, the amount of dissolved oxygen decreases.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) aquatic organisms.

TDS is the measure of the material dissolved in water.

This measure is related to hardness, salinity and conductivity.

Hard water has more TDS than soft water.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS (TSS) aquatic organisms.

TSS is the measure of the sediment suspended in the water.

TSS is related to turbidity.

Water with high TSS usually has high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) as well.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


TURBIDITY aquatic organisms.

Turbidity refers to water clarity.

Sediments suspended in the water increase turbidity.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


A aquatic organisms.secchi disk is one type of instrument used to measure turbidity.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Senyawa aquatic organisms. Kimia Toksik

Toxic chemicals usually come from industry and energy production.

The effects are often not known until years after they have entered the environment.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


Toxic aquatic organisms.chemicals include heavy metals (lead, mercury), organic compounds (DDT, PCB), inorganic substances (arsenic) and others.

Diunduhdari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt‎


INDIKATOR AIR MINUM aquatic organisms.

An electrical conductivity meter is used to measure total dissolved solids

The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category:

Alkalinity

WARNA AIR

pH

Taste and odor (geosmin, 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), etc.)

Dissolved metals and salts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium)

Microorganisms such as fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli), Cryptosporidium, and Giardialamblia

Dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.)

Dissolved organics: colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

Radon

LOGAM – LOGAM BERAT

Pharmaceuticals

Hormone analogs.

Diunduhdari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


INDIKATOR AIR aquatic organisms.

IndikatorFisika

Suhu Air = Water Temperature

Specifics Conductance or EC, Electrical Conductance, Conductivity

Total suspended solids (TSS)

Transparency or Turbidity

Total dissolved solids (TDS)

Bau air = Odor of Water

Warna air = Color of water

Rasa air = Taste of Water

Diunduhdari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


INDIKATOR AIR aquatic organisms.

Indikator Kimia

pH

Total Hardness, Hard water, TH = Permanent Hardness + Temporary Hardness

Dissolved oxygen (DO)

Nitrat-N

Orthofosfat

Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

Pestisida

Logam-logamberat.

Diunduhdari: ……………… 28/11/2012


INDICATOR OF WATER aquatic organisms.

Biological Indicators/ assessment

Ephemeroptera

Plecoptera

Trichoptera

Escherichia Coli or E.Coli or E.coli

Coliform

Biological monitoring metrics have been developed in many places, and one widely used measure is the presence and abundance of members of the insect orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT).

EPT indexes will naturally vary from region to region, but generally, within a region, the greater the number of taxa from these orders, the better the water quality. EPA and other organizations in the United States offer guidance on developing a monitoring program and identifying members of these and other aquatic insect orders.

Individuals interested in monitoring water quality who cannot afford or manage lab scale analysis can also use biological indicators to get a general reading of water quality. One example is the IOWATER volunteer water monitoring program, which includes a benthic macroinvertebrate indicator key.

Diunduhdari: ……………… 28/11/2012


WATER QUALITY aquatic organisms.INDEX

A water quality index provides a single number (like a grade) that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water quality data into information that is understandable and useable by the public. This type of index is similar to the index developed for air quality that shows if it’s a red or blue air quality day.

The use of an index to "grade" water quality is a controversial issue among water quality scientists. A single number cannot tell the whole story of water quality; there are many other water quality parameters that are not included in the index. The index presented here is not specifically aimed at human health or aquatic life regulations. However, a water index based on some very important parameters can provide a simple indicator of water quality. It gives the public a general idea the possible problems with the water in the region.

Diunduhdari: http://bcn.boulder.co.us/basin/watershed/wqi_info.html ……………… 28/11/2012


BAKU MUTU AIR & PELAPORANNYA aquatic organisms.

1. WHO Guideline

World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline for Drinking Water Standards.

2. ICMR Standards

ICMR Standards for Drinking Water.

3. International standards or ISI Satandards Water quality regulated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is covered in the section of ICS 13.060, ranging from water sampling, drinking water, industrial class water, sewage water, and examination of water for chemical, physical or biological properties. ICS 91.140.60 covers the standards of water supply systems.

Diunduhdari: ……………… 28/11/2012


KRITERIA KUALITAS AIR aquatic organisms.

Section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act requires us to develop criteria for water quality that accurately reflects the latest scientific knowledge. These criteria are based solely on data and scientific judgments on pollutant concentrations and environmental or human health effects.

Section 304(a) also provides guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards. Criteria are developed for the protection of aquatic life as well as for human health. 

Diunduhdari: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012


KEHIDUPAN AKUATIK aquatic organisms.

Aquatic Life criteria lists chemical concentration goals to protect surface water for aquatic life use.

Biological criteria are based on the numbers and kinds of organisms present and describe the biological condition of aquatic communities inhabiting surface waters.

Nutrients are substances used by living things that promote growth (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). We are developing nutrient criteria to prevent over enrichment in surface waters of the U.S.A.

Diunduhdari: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012


KESEHATAN MANUSIA aquatic organisms.

Human Health includes technical information and guidance on surface water, drinking water and microbials.

Microbial (Pathogen) criteria are used to protect the public from exposure to harmful levels of pathogens in ground and surface waters, food sources, and finished drinking water.

Recreational Criteria protect people who swim and play in coastal recreational waters from exposure to pathogens. We held an Experts Scientific Workshop to help map our future directions.

Diunduhdari: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012


INDEKS KUALITAS AIR DAN INDIKATORNYA aquatic organisms.

The integrity of an ecosystem is typically assessed through its ability to provide goods and services on a continuous basis. Together with the air we breathe, the provision of clean water is arguably the most fundamental service provided by ecosystems. Yet, human activities have fundamentally altered inland water ecosystems and their catchments. As a consequence species dependant on inland waters are more likely to go extinct, and future extinction rates of freshwater animals could be up to 5 times higher than for terrestrial animals.

Water quality refers to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a water body. These characteristics determine how and for what water can be used and the species and ecosystem process it can support.

Diunduhdari: http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/Default.aspx……………… 28/11/2012


BAKU MUTU AIR MINUM GLOBAL aquatic organisms.

  • Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI)

    • all parameters regardless of WHO designation

  • Source Water Quality Index (SWQI)

    • health and microbial criteria only

    • arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluoride, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate, nitrite, faecalcoliforms

  • Acceptability Water Quality Index (AWQI)

    • acceptability criteria only

    • ammonia, chloride, iron, pH, sodium, sulphate, zinc

  • 4X4 Rule:  Each parameter that contributes to the index must be measured at least 4 times per year at stations that have measured a minimum of 4 parameters per year.

Diunduhdari: http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/Default.aspx ……………… 28/11/2012


INDEKS KUALITAS AIR GLOBAL aquatic organisms.

Diunduhdari: http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/Default.aspx ……………… 28/11/2012


INDEKS KUALITAS AIR aquatic organisms.

In most of the cases, this index represents a numerical expression used in the assessment of the flowing water quality, through the framing of the values in five classes on the interval going from 1 to 100; a certain quality state, respectively a usage domain correspond to each class (Adriano et al., 2006).

The raw values of each quality parameter must be compared with the standard threshold values that are taken into account for the computation of the index, in the view of the qualitative assessment. In all cases when the index must be determinate, the computation formula is the following:

WQI – the Water Quality Index

i – the quality parameter

qi – the registered value

wi – the rank of implication of the parameter in the computation formula

The values of the Water Quality Index that were thus obtained are distributed on a number of intervals, which render the quality of the respective water and the usage domain (Table no. 1): 10–25 percent - highly polluted; 26–50 percent - polluted; 51–70 percent - reasonable; 71–90 percent - good; 91–100 percent - very good (House and Ellis, 1987).

Diunduhdari: http://analegeo.ro/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/5.-IONUS-Oana.pdf ……………… 28/11/2012


Peranan wqi
Peranan aquatic organisms. WQI

  • WQI numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value

  • The single value can be used to compare data from several sites

  • It can be used to look at trends over time on a single site

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


Parameter untuk wqi
Parameter aquatic organisms.untuk WQI

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


Bagian bagian dari wqi
Bagian-bagian aquatic organisms.dari WQI

  • Q-Value - indication of water quality relative to 100 of one parameter

  • Weighting Factor - sets the relative importance of the parameter to overall water quality

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


Q value

Q = 50 aquatic organisms.

Medium

Q = 25

Q = 75

Very Good

Very Bad

Q = 0

Q = 100

Q Value

  • The Q-Value is an indication of how good (or bad) the water quality is relative to one parameter.

  • 100 = Very Good

  • 1 = Very Bad

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


Ph q graph q table
pH aquatic organisms.: Q-Graph & Q-Table

pH Q-Value

  • 6.6 81

  • 6.8 88

  • 7.0 94

  • 7.2 98

  • 7.4 100

  • 7.6 98

  • 7.8 94

  • 8.0 88

  • 8.2 80

  • 8.4 72

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


E coli q graph q table
E.coli aquatic organisms.: Q-Graph & Q-Table

E. coli Q-Value

0 100

1 99

2 94

5 89

10 84

20 80

50 74

100 69

200 65

500 27

1000 30

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


Faktor faktor pembobot
Faktor-faktor aquatic organisms.Pembobot

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


Interpretasi wqi
Interpretasi aquatic organisms. WQI

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


Contoh perhitungan wqi
Contoh aquatic organisms.Perhitungan WQI

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


Penyesuaian untuk data yang hilang
Penyesuaian aquatic organisms.untuk data yang hilang

  • When a parameter is missing, the sum of the weighting factors that have data can be used to adjust the WQI

  • Sum of the Parametric Index Values is divided by the sum of the weighting factors that have data.

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


Perhitungan dengan parameter yang hilang
Perhitungan aquatic organisms.dengan parameter yang hilang

Diunduhdari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt‎


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