Organization of Matter
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Organization of Matter. S1-2-03 Define element and identify symbols of some common elements. S1-2-06 Investigate the development of the periodic table as a method of organizing elements. S1-2-08 Relate the reactivity and stability of different families of elements to their atomic structure.

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Organization of Matter

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Organization of matter

Organization of Matter


Organization of matter

S1-2-03 Define element and identify symbols of some common elements.

S1-2-06 Investigate the development of the periodic table as a method of organizing elements.

S1-2-08 Relate the reactivity and stability of different families of elements to their atomic structure.

Vocabulary & People

PeriodNon-metalsGroup

FamilyAlkali metalsEarth metals

ChalcogensHalogensNoble gases

Mendeleev


Organization of matter

Elemental symbols originated from a Greek or Latin root word


Organization of matter

  • Mendeleev (1870)

  • Russian scientist and professor

  • Arranged the 63 elements by atomicmass

  • Noticed a repetition of properties (periodicity)

  • Called the patternof properties “Periodic Law”

Mendeleev (correctly) predicted the mass of elements yet to be discovered and left spaces open for them


Organization of matter

  • Moseley(1913)

    Experimentsshowed proton number was a better method to organize the elements.

  • Repetition of properties (periodicity) became more clear

Modern Periodic Law:

“The properties of elements are a periodic function of increasing atomic number”

We know now that most element properties are due to the number of valence electrons – luckily electron and proton numbers are equal


Organization of matter

The Periodic Table contains metals and non-metals.

A staircaseseparates metals from non-metals.

M e t a l s

Non- metals


Organization of matter

  • Rows of the periodic table are called periods.

  • Elements in periods do nothave similar properties

  • Left to right

  • Elements change from metals tonon-metals

Non-metal

Element with properties opposite to those of metals (brittle, dull…)

periods


Organization of matter

  • Columns of the periodic table are called groups.

  • Elements in groups have similarproperties

  • A family is a group with a specific name:

Family names and locations need to be memorized

GROUP

  • Alkali metals

  • Alkaline Earth metals

  • Chalogens

  • Halogens

  • Inert (noble) gases


Organization of matter

Older tables have an old label system for columns with Roman numerals – new tables just number them 1 through 18


Organization of matter

  • Hydrogen*

  • Group 1

  • Non-metal gas

  • 1 valence electron

  • Simplest atomic structure - only 1 e- and 1 p+

  • Highly chemically reactive

The placement of hydrogen is only because of its structure - 1 proton… Sometimes a table will have it raised above the Alkali Metals to avoid confusion


Organization of matter

What trends (“periodicity”) have you found?


Organization of matter

The Octet Rule of Chemical Reactions

  • Atoms with a FULL outer orbit are very stable

Chemical reactions happen when atoms work together to try to get a fullvalenceorbit

  • Atoms will acquire a full outer shell in 3 ways:

  • Give away an e- to another atom

  • Take an e- from another atom

  • Share an e-with another atom

We’ll skip this one until next year


Organization of matter

+

Sodium atom:

11 p+

11 e-

Na

Sodium ion:

11 p+

10 e-

Na +

Once a neutralatom gains or loses e-to be more stable it is called an ion


Organization of matter

-

Chlorine atom:

17 p+

17 e-

Cl

Chlorine ion:

17 p+

18 e-

Cl -

Notice the ionhas a charge associated with it based on the number of e- lost or gained


Organization of matter

2+

Calcium atom:

20 p+

20 e-

Ca

Calcium ion:

20 p+

18 e-

Ca 2+


Organization of matter

3-

Nitrogen atom:

7 p+

7 e-

N

Nitrogen ion:

7 p+

10 e-

N 3-


Organization of matter

TheLESS electrons needed, theGREATERthechemical reactivity of the element

Increasing Reactivity

A Chemical Reaction

Movement of electrons between combiningatoms that results in the formation of a

NEW substance.


Organization of matter

Working together to become more stableis what binds atoms (now called ions) together to make compounds.

A new substance is formed

-

+

explosive metal

toxic gas

Salt!


Organization of matter

CAN YOU ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS?

S1-2-06

How is the Periodic Table organized for the elements and what trends exist?

S1-2-03

What are the symbols of the first 20 elements and other common ones?

S1-2-08

Why do families react differently during chemical reactions?

Vocabulary & People

Non-metalsPeriodGroup

FamilyAlkali metalsEarth metals

ChalcogensHalogensNoble gases

Mendeleev


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