American History. 1492-2013. Contents :. -The Native -The Discover of America -The First Europeans -Independence -Expansion -Civil War -Immigration and development -World War I -Crisis of 29 ( Black Thursday) -World War 2 -The Cold War -Civil Rights
The Native American arrived 20000 years ago from Siberia.
They formed into tribes :
Huron and Iroquois in the east
Sioux and Comanche on the Great Plains
Apache and Pueblo Indians in the South West
The Discoverof America
-There was colonialism between Europeans kingdoms .
-Spain was the most in spot .
-Christopher Columbus, an explorer, wanted to civilized
Asia’s colonies to have the raw materials.
-Queen of Spain supported this voyage and gave him the three caravels.
-14th October of 1492 Columbus saw a land, but it couldn’t be in Indian’s island.
-He was accused of incompetence and died forgotten.
- Amerigo Vespucci completed Columbus’ voyage and gave his own name to the land: America.
In spot= in a difficult situation
-Spanish colonies were established in Mexico, California, New Mexico, Texas and Florida.
-French colonists settled in eastern Canada and Louisiana.
-English settlements were in Virginia, New England ( with the arrive of Pilgrim fathers and their May Flower), Atlantic coast region and Appalachians Mountains.
-Native population was drastically reduced
-The American colonists begun to resent taxed imposed on them by London.
-English government committed to India the monopoly on tea trade .
-America attacked British ships carrying tea in Boston ( Boston Tea Party).
-England imposed new taxes that Americans refused justify it with the famous: ‘’no taxation without representation’’.
-The 13 colonies formed the Continental Army under George Washington .
-The 4th July 1776 the Colonies Congress approved the Declaration of Independence.
-In 1789 Washington won the elections and Congress approved the Bill of Rights and the Supreme Court was founded.
-1803 Louisiana Purchase: US bought from France the entire Mississippi and the Great Plains Areas .
-The 13 American States moved through West passing the Appalachian Springs ( disappearance of Indians).
-In 1819 Spain bought the Florida region .
-The Oregon territory was obtained through a treaty with the British in 1845.
-In 1848 the Mexicans were pushed out of Texas, New Mexico and California.
-The discovery of gold in California interested Europeans to enrich themselves Gold Rush of 1848.
-In 1869 the first railway line was built.
-‘’All man are created equal’’ ( Declaration of Independence)was not true
Southern States brought African slaves to work on the plantations.
-Northern States more industrialized and manufacturing capacity.
-1861 the president Abraham Lincoln passed laws abolishing slavery.
-The 11 Southern States founded the Confederacy ( David Jefferson)
-In 1865 the Confederate general Robert Eileen won.
-Slavery was banned in every states.
-Industrial development accelerated in the North East.
-Millions of new immigrants arrived from Europe.
-New industrial city, giant corporations ( standard oil, US steel), industrialists ( Andrew Carnegie , Henry Ford) developed new techniques.
-1880-1900 USA great industrial power.
-Jews escaped from the Pogroms and were exanimated in Ellis islands (mentally ill ,disease, criminals).
-The spirit of Nation persisted.
Giant= a very large and powerful organization
-While in Europe the war was bursting, USA decided to remain neutral; but in 1917 decided to join in because :
It gave high loans to the Allies
Germans’ submarines attacked Americans’ ships
Wilson, with the 14 points document supported free trade and self-determination of the population.
-11th November of 1918 and armistice was signed
-May 1919 the treaty of Versailles established the peace in Europe.
Be bursting= to be very full and almost open
Crisis of ’29 (BlackThursday)
-In 1920s the widespread prosperity ended Wall Street stocked marked crush in October 1929
-The offer highly overtook the demand depression in people’s jobs, homes and farms unemployment
-In 1932’ elections Franklin Roosevelt won with promise of a New Deal:
Direct intervention of the State in economy, giving syndical rights and social services to workers
-Great depression affected the entire world.
Widespread= large diffusion
-USA decided to remain neutral in this World War 2.
-7 December of 1941 Japanese warplanes attacked the USA navy base Pearl Harbor they entered
-Japan had already been in China and seized Manchuria territories and the South east Asia Pacific region .
-1942 Battle of Midway and Japan was defeated by USA.
-1944 Allies forces (USA and UK) landed in France with the battle ‘’D-Day’’ to press Germany ( Japan’s ally) thanks to the invasion of Normandy Germany signed the official surrender
-1945 the USA president Truman dropped two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan surrendered.
-USA and Soviet Union Super Powers
-1945 UN was founded to respect all the democratic Governments
-1946 the Marshall Plan wanted to support Europe and prevent the spread of Soviet communism
-1947 Cold War began the communist soviet union controlled eastern Europe encouraging communist revolutions
-USA fought this threat with some conflicts _
1 Korean War (1950/1953)
2 Against Cuba , the ally of Soviets
-The USA president John F. Kennedy persuaded them to remove the weapons.
-In the Vietnam War ( 1964/1975) USA was humiliated to note prevented communism.
-1990s the new president Reagan increased military spending and negotiated with the soviet leader Gorbachev The Cold War ended.
Spread= an increase in the amount of something that there is
-Martin Luther King saw how badly were treated thanks to the incident of Rosa Parks, black people protested against social differences.
-The USA president John F. Kennedy shared his opinion on equal rights
-1963 King organized a big protest march in Washington DC where he said the famous speech ‘’ I have a dream’’
-Kennedy was killed in November 1963.
-American government approved the civil rights act.
-King’s life came to a sudden end in 1968 when he was killed by a white racist.
-Today he is a hero.
Afterthe Cold War
-Vietnam Was left Americans very cautious about intervention oversea
-1991 Gulf War against Iraq: they drove Iraqi army out of Kuwait
-1999 Conflict with Yugoslavia over Kosovo
-With the democratic president bill Clinton the economy improved and he signed the NAFTA with Canada and Mexico
-2000 republican president George W Bush and a year later , 11th September 2001 the Twin Towers were attacked terroristic attack by Al Qaeda ( Bin Laden)
-2003 Americans soldiers attacked Iraq in the ‘’War on terror’’/ Gulf War 2
-In 2008’s elections Obama won.
-2011 it ended thanks to the democratic president Obama who withdrew American tropes from Iraq.
-USA suffered hard times ( hurricane Katrina ,republican political scandals, unbalanced economy and unemployment )
-2010 Obama included the patient protection and affordable care act ( healthcare system )
-2011 Bin Laden was killed by USA forces.
-2011 Obama was re -elected president.
Cautious= being careful about what you do
Drove out = to make somebody disappear or stop doing something
Withdrew=to move somebody away from a place
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