Firefighter Tools And Equipment. CHAPTER 8. Overview. Saturday 01/26/2013 Lecture AM Divide into groups PM Sunday 01/27/2013 Divide into groups to go over tools and Equipment Chainsaws / Rotary Saws Hand Tools Inventory and Tool familiarization
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Divide into groups PM
Divide into groups to go over tools and Equipment
Chainsaws / Rotary Saws
Inventory and Tool familiarization
Hydraulic Tools / Gas Powered Equipment
You respond on a call. The engine or truck your riding on comes to a stop. You can see fire coming out of the second-story window of a single family residence.
As you unbuckle your seatbelt, the captain tells you to get the Halligan Tool and a flat head axe and follow him. Meanwhile, another engine company pulls a hose line and advances it to the front door. You and the captain try to open the door, but its locked. Everyone dons their SCBA face piece, the hose line is charged with water, and you position the HalliganTool and force open the door.
1.Where on the apparatus are these tools stored?
2. Do you know how to use these tools?
3. If you did not have these tools, what would
Firefighters use tools and equipment to perform a wide range of activities. A fire fighter must know how to use tools effectively, efficiently, and safely, even when its dark or visibility is limited.
Hand tools are used to extend or multiply the actions of your body and increase your effectiveness in performing specific functions. Most hand tools operate using simple machanical principles. a pike pole extends your reach, allows you to penetrate through a ceiling, and enables you to apply force to pull down ceiling material. An axe multiplies the cutting force you can exert on a given area. Power tools and equipment use an external source of power, such as an electric motor or an internal combustion engine, and are faster and more efficient than hand tools.
Though tools differ in their function, power source, and size, general safety rules apply to the use of all tools.
General Hazards of Tool Use:
There are a variety of hazards associated with improper tool use and faulty tools. Some of these hazards are unique to the tool while others are common for many types of tools.
Examples of hazards and associated injuries include the following:
Being struck by a tool, or moving part can cause bone fractures, concussions, and internal organ damage.
Rotating blades, drills, and other cutting tools can cut and puncture tissue.
Objects can fly off during many tool operations. Depending on an object\'s size, shape, speed, and material, it can cause a variety of injuries to various body parts. Small flying objects are a particular hazard to the eyes.
The power source of a tool may present a hazard on its own. For example, electricity can cause burns and shocks. Electric shocks can paralyze the nerve centers, stop breathing, and stop the heart. Heat from the electric current can burn the skin and damage internal organs. Other power sources like gasoline can combust and start fires.
Tools can create noise hazards and hearing damage.
Safety Practices :
Structure / Auto
PERSONAL ALERT SAFETY SYSTEM (PASS ALARM)
Two Way Radio
Always use the right tool for the job!
Never use a tool that you are unfamiliar with.
Before each use, inspect your tools.
When you\'re tired, you\'re attention span is reduced.
Disconnect the power source when performing maintenance, cleaning, or changing blades and bits.
Be wary of dropping tools.
The material being worked- on should be well secured.
Never lock a tool in the ON position if you are working under conditions that require you to stop the tool quickly.
The best way to learn how to use tools and equipment properly is under optimal conditions of visibility and safety.
Many departments require fire fighters to practice certain skills and evolutions in total darkness or with their face masks covered to simulate the darkness of actual fires.
Effective use of tools
The Forestry "McLeod" Fire Tool is a combination hoe/rake with bolted blade, 3 ½" teeth and 4\' wood handle.
This is a short handled shovel about 1.2 m (4 feet) long. The shovel is the workhorse of the wildfire inventory, it is used to scrape light fuels from the dirt when building fire line, may be used to throw dirt cooling or smothering flames and the edges are sharpened allowing it to chop down saplings and cut branches from brush or trees.
Bush hooks are ideal for cutting medium-sized, non-woody brush. The hooks can be used like an axe. The blades cut easily on the "pull" stroke. Bush hooks can be safer to use than axes, yet as effective as axes.
How do they Function
This is what a two-stroke engine looks like: You find two-stroke engines in such devices as chain saws and jet skis because two-stroke engines have three important advantages over four-stroke engines:
(1.)Two-stroke engines do not have valves, which simplifies their construction and lowers their weight.
(2.)Two-stroke engines fire once every revolution, while four-stroke engines fire once every other revolution. This gives two-stroke engines a significant power boost.
(3.)Two-stroke engines can work in any orientation, which can be important in something like a chainsaw. A standard four-stroke engine may have problems with oil flow unless it is upright, and solving this problem can add complexity to the engine.
These advantages make two-stroke engines lighter, simpler and less expensive to manufacture. Two-stroke engines also have the potential to pack about twice the power into the same space because there are twice as many power strokes per revolution. The combination of light weight and twice the power gives two-stroke engines a great power-to-weight ratio compared to many four-stroke engine designs.
You don\'t normally see two-stroke engines in cars, however. That\'s because two-stroke engines have a couple of significant disadvantages that will make more sense once we look at how it operates.
Almost all cars currently use what is called a four-stroke combustion cycle engine to convert gasoline into motion. The four-stroke approach is also known as the Otto cycle, in honor of Nikolaus Otto, who invented the 4 cycle engine in 1867.
To understand the mechanical differences between a two stroke and four stroke engine, we need to first consider how the four stroke engine works.
The four strokes are:
Each time the piston rises and falls it turns the crankshaft which is responsible for turning the wheels.,which is converted into forward motion.
Note that the spark plug only fires once every other revolution in a 4 cycle engine.
A 2 stroke has more get-up-and-go because it fires once every revolution, giving it twice the power of a four stroke, which only fires once every other revolution.
A 2 stroke packs a higher weight-to-power ratio because it is much lighter.
A 2 stroke is less expensive because of its simpler design.
A 2 stroke can be operated in any orientation because it lacks the oil sump of a four stroke engine, which has limited orientation if oil is to be retained in the sump.
2 stroke engines wear faster and have shorter engine life than a four stroke due to the lack of a dedicated lubricating system.
2 stroke engines require special two stroke oil also known as ("premix") with every tank of gas, adding expense and at least a minimal amount of hassle.
2 stroke engines are heavy polluters because of the simpler design and the gas/oil mixture that is released prior to, and in the exhaust (also creates an unpleasant smell).
2 stroke engines are less fuel-inefficient than a four stroke engine.
2 stroke engines have a high-decibelwhine that may exceed legal noise limits in some areas, depending on the product and local applicable laws.
The process of extinguishing a fire usually involves a sequence of steps or stages.
1. Each phase of a fire ground operation may require the use of certain types of tools and equipment.
The basic steps of fire suppression include:
2. Forcible entry:
3. Interior attack:
4. Search and rescue:
5. Rapid intervention:
1.The response and size-up phase enables you to anticipate emergency situations.
2.At this time, you should consider the information from the dispatcher along with pre-incident plan information about the location.
3.This information can provide you with an idea of the nature and possible gravity of the situation as well as the types of problems that might arise.
4.Even though information is limited, this is the time to start thinking about the types of tools and equipment that you might need.
5.Most fire departments have standard operating procedures or guidelines that specify the tools and equipment required for different types of fires.
6.Upon arrival at the scene, the company officers will size-up the situation and develop the action plans for each company, following standard operating procedures and guidelines.
1. Gaining entrance to a locked building or structure can present a challenge to even the most seasoned fire fighter.
2. Buildings are often equipped with security devices designed to keep unwanted people out.
a . These same devices can make it very difficult for fire fighters to gain access to the building.
3. Forcible entry is the process of entering a building by overcoming these barriers.
4. Several types of tools can be used in forced entry, including an axe, a prying tool, or a K tool.
5. A flat-head axe and a Halligan tool are often used in combination to quickly pry open a door, although they may permanently damage both the door and the frame.
6. Prying tools used for gaining access include pry bars, crowbars, Halligan tools.
7. A K tool can be used to pull out a cylinder lock mounted in a wood or heavy metal door, so that the lock can be released.
a. This is a comparatively nondestructive process that leaves the door and most of the locking mechanism undamaged.
b. The building owner can have the lock cylinder replaced at a relatively low cost.
8. Various striking tools can be used for forcible entry when brute force is needed to break into a building.
a. These include flat-head axes, hammers, sledgehammers, and battering rams.
9. Sometimes the easiest or only way to gain access is to use cutting tools.
a. An axe can be used to cut out a door panel.
b. A rotary saw or chain saw can be used to cut through a roll up door, or a wood wall.
c. Bolt cutters can be used to remove a padlock.
d. Power saws can be used to cut through metal security bars.
10. Many techniques can be used to gain entry into secured structures.
a. The exact tool needed will depend upon the method of entry and the type of obstacle.
11. Because experience usually determines the best way to gain entry in each situation, rely on the orders and advice of your captain and coworkers.
1. The process of fighting a fire inside a building involves several tasks that are usually performed simultaneously or in rapid succession by fire fighters.
2. Some basic tools and equipment should be carried by every crew working inside a burning building.
3. Crews may also carry specialized tools and equipment needed for their particular assignment.
4. The basic tools enable firefighters to solve problems they may encounter while performing interior operations.
a. For example, the crew may encounter obstacles such as locked doors, or they may need to open an emergency escape route.
b. They may need to establish horizontal ventilation by forcing, opening, or breaking a window.
c. They may have to gain access to the space above the ceiling by using a pike pole or to make a hole in a wall or floor with an axe.
5. A powerful light is important, because smoke can quickly reduce interior visibility to just a few inches.
6. The basic set of tools for interior firefighting includes:
a. A prying tool, such as a Halligan tool
b. A striking tool, such as a flat-head axe or sledgehammer
c. A cutting tool, such as an axe
d. A pushing tool, such as a pike pole
e. A strong hand light or portable light
7. The specific tools that must be carried by each crew are usually defined in a fire department’s training manuals and standard operating procedures.
8. The interior attack team is responsible for advancing a hose line, finding the fire, and applying water to extinguish the flames.
9. They need the basic tools that will allow them to reach the seat of the fire.
1. Search and rescue needs to be carried out quickly shortly after arrival on the fire ground.
2. A search team should carry the same basic hand tools as the interior attack team:
a. Pushing tool (short pike pole)
b. Prying tool (Halligan tool)
c. Striking tool (sledgehammer or flat-head axe)
d. Cutting tool (axe
e. Hand light
3. In addition to being equipped for forcible entry and emergency exit, a search-and-rescue team might also use tools to probe under beds for unconscious victims.
a. A short pike pole is relatively light and reduces the time needed to search an area by extending the fire fighter’s reach.
b. An axe handle can also be used for this purpose.
4. Other types of tools used for search and rescue include thermal imaging cameras, portable lights, and lifelines.
COME A LONG
1. A rapid intervention company or crew (RIC) is designated to stand by to provide immediate assistance to any fire fighters who become lost, trapped, or injured during an incident or training exercise.
2. The RIC team should have the standard set of tools for interior firefighting as well as extra tools and equipment particularly important for search and rescue tasks.
3. The extra tools and equipment should help them find and gain access to a fire fighter who is in trouble, extricate a fire fighter who is trapped under debris, provide breathing air for a fire fighter who has experienced an SCBA failure or run out of air, and remove an injured or unconscious fire fighter from the building.
4. All of this equipment should be gathered and staged with the rapid intervention crew where it will be immediately available if it is needed.
5. The special equipment that a rapid intervention team should carry includes:
a. Thermal image camera
b. Additional portable lighting
d. Prying tools
e. Striking tools
f. Cutting tools, including a power saw
1. Many of the same tools used for forcible entry are also used to provide ventilation.
2. Power saws and axes are commonly used to cut through roofs and vent combustion by-products.
3. Fans are often used either to remove smoke from a building or to introduce fresh air into a structure.
4. With positive-pressure ventilation, fresh air is blown into a building through selected openings to force contaminated air out through other openings.
5. Negative-pressure ventilation uses fans placed at selected openings to draw contaminated air out of a building.
6. Ventilation fans can be powered either by electric or gasoline motors or by water pressure.
7. Horizontal ventilation usually involves opening outer doors and windows to allow fresh air to enter and to remove contaminated air.
8. Unlocked or easily released windows and doors should be opened normally.
10. It may also be necessary to make interior openings within the building so that contaminated air can reach the exterior openings.
11. Vertical ventilation requires openings in the roof or the highest part of a building to allow smoke and hot gases to escape.
12. Whenever possible, existing openings such as doors, windows, roof hatches, and skylights should be used for vertical ventilation.
13. It may be necessary to force them open or to break them using forcible entry tools.
14. In some circumstances it may be necessary to cut through a roof to make an effective vertical ventilation opening.
15. Cutting tools such as axes and power saws are used to make these openings.
16. Pike poles will also be needed to pull down ceilings after the roof covering is opened.
17. The special equipment needed for ventilation includes:
a. Positive-pressure fans
b. Negative-pressure (exhaust) fans
c. Cutting tools (power saws and axes)
c. Pulling and pushing tools (long pike poles)
d. Hose Lines
1. The purpose of overhaul is to examine the fire scene carefully and ensure that all hidden fires are extinguished.
2. Burned debris must be removed and potential hot spots in enclosed spaces behind walls, above ceilings, and under floors must be exposed.
3. Both tasks can be accomplished using simple hand tools.
4. Pike poles are commonly used for pulling down ceilings and opening holes in walls.
5. Axes, and sometimes power saws, are used to open walls and floors.
6. Prying and striking tools are also used to open closed spaces.
7. Shovels, brooms, and rakes are used to clear away debris.
8. The increasing use of infrared thermal imaging cameras has made it possible to “see” hot spots behind walls without physically cutting into them.
9. Tools used during overhaul operations include:
a. Pushing/Pulling tools (pike poles of varying lengths, rubbish hooks)
b. Prying tools (Halligan tool)
c. Striking tools (sledgehammer, flat-head axe, hammer, mallet)
d. Cutting tools (axes, power saws)
e. Debris-removal tools (shovels, brooms, rakes, carryalls)
f. Water-removal equipment (water vacuums)
g. Ventilation equipment (electric, gas, or water-powered fans)
h. Portable lighting
i. Thermal imaging camera
An important reason to perform regular maintenance on all tools is to keep yourself safe. A rusty blade or broken gear can cause you to suffer a serious injury. Never turn on a power tool if you think it has been damaged.
To help prevent problems from occurring, it\'s important to keep your tools in a clean, dry area, away from dust and moisture. Dirt can get trapped in mechanisms either slowing them down or stopping them altogether. Too much moisture can cause rust, which can easily destroy a power tool. This is especially true if they are battery powered. Batteries should be checked often for leaks and changed according to factory specifications. Electrical cords and plugs should also be examined for damage before using.
Keeping your power tools oiled is also an important part of regular maintenance. This helps maintain clean movement and also can preventing rusting. Oiling keeps your equipment running smoothly and should be performed often.
Large tools require a more thorough maintenance. Filters should be checked and changed often as well as oiling, dusting, and testing between uses. Bolts, hoses, and other small parts should be kept tight. Tools like chain saws will need alignment and balancing occasionally to ensure that they work properly. Blades Circular Saws will need to be replaced periodically. If you\'re unsure of how to perform any necessary maintenance, consult with a professional.
Never attempt to clean or fix a tool without experience and knowledge. Not only could you potentially damage the tool, but you could seriously hurt yourself in the process.
If an object becomes trapped in the power tool or the mechanisms fail, make sure the machine is completely shut off before disassembling. Always follow all given instructions on taking apart any piece of equipment and then reassembling. Don\'t add or alter any parts.
The most important part of power tool maintenance is safety. You don\'t want to be responsible for the ramifications of using a faulty tool. Performing a little bit of maintenance will keep your power tools running smoothly for years to come.
Maintaining and Repairing Tools
· Install or repair equipment only if you are qualified. A faulty job could cause serious injuries from mechanical failure, fire, or shock.
Maintain tools in proper working condition. Regularly inspect tools, cords and accessories. Repair or replace problem equipment immediately. Keep tools sharp, well oiled and stored in a dry place.
Never alter a tool in a manner that reduces its effectiveness or safety.
A. Tools and equipment must be properly maintained so that they will be ready for use when they are needed.
1. Keep equipment clean and free from rust.
2. Keep cutting blades sharpened and fuel tanks filled.
3. Every tool and piece of equipment must be ready for use before you respond to an emergency incident.
B. Use power equipment only after you have been instructed on its use.
C. Use equipment only for its intended purposes.
1. For example, a pike pole is made for pushing and pulling; it is not a lever and will break if used inappropriately.
2. Use the right tool for the job.
D. Cleaning and Inspecting Salvage, Overhaul, and Ventilation Equipment and Tools is a must.
1. After returning from a fire, clean and inspect all of the tools usrd to ensure that they are in a “ready state.”
E. Cleaning and Inspect Hand Tools
1. All hand tools should be completely cleaned and inspected after use.
2. Remove all dirt and debris.
3. If appropriate, use water streams to remove the debris and soap to clean the equipment thoroughly.
4. To prevent rust, metal tools must be dried completely, either by hand or by air, before being returned to the apparatus.
5. Cutting tools should be sharpened after each use.
6. Before any tool is placed back into service, it should be inspected for damage.
7. Avoid painting tools, because this will hide any possible defects or visible damage.
8. Keep the number of markings on a tool to a minimum.
PIECE OF WOOD
Tools and Equipment