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Lecture 13 Operating Systems. Introduction to Information Technology. Dr. Ken Tsang 曾镜涛 Email: kentsang@uic.edu.hk http://www.uic.edu.hk/~kentsang/IT/IT3.htm Room E408 R9. With thanks to Dr. HP Guo. Outline. Software Basics What is an Operating System History of Operating Systems

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Lecture 13 Operating Systems

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Lecture 13 operating systems

Lecture 13Operating Systems

Introduction to Information Technology

Dr. Ken Tsang 曾镜涛



Room E408 R9

With thanks to Dr. HP Guo



  • Software Basics

  • What is an Operating System

  • History of Operating Systems

  • Booting the Computer

  • Functions of Operating Systems

  • Types of Operating Systems

  • Utility Programs in Windows XP

The computer level hierarchy

The Computer Level Hierarchy

Software basics

Software Basics

  • Computer = Hardware + Software

  • Software

    • Application software

      • Address users' specific needs in the real world

      • word processing, music software, image editing, games, database programs, inventory control systems, etc.

    • System software

      • Operating system

      • Device drivers

      • Utilities

      • Programming software tools (compilers, debuggers, etc.)

Computer system

Computer System

Who creates computer software

Who Creates Computer Software?

  • Programmers

  • High-level language, easy for humans

    • C++, Java, etc

  • Low-level language, used by CPU

    • Machine language

  • Compiler

    • Translate high-level language into low-level language



Operating systems

Operating Systems

  • A set of programs containing instructions that maintain and manage the computer resources, such as CPU, memory and input/output devices

  • Provide an interface through which the user can interact with the computer

  • The core of a computer’s system software

History of operating systems

History of Operating Systems

  • Batch processing

    • Professional operators (humans!) combined decks of cards into batches, or bundles, with the appropriate instructions allowing them to be processed with minimal intervention

    • A program called a resident monitor allowed programs to be processed without human interaction

History of operating systems1

History of Operating Systems

  • Resident Monitors

    • Monitors were the precursors of modern day operating systems

    • The monitor started the job, gave control of the computer to the job, and when the job was done, the monitor resumed control of the machine



  • Increases in CPU performance made punched card batch processing less efficient

  • Magnetic tape (as buffer) offered one way to process decks faster

  • SPOOLing

    • Simultaneous Peripheral Operation Online

    • Allows I/O and CPU computations to occur in parallel

    • the simplest form of multiprogramming

    • Spooling example: print spooling

History of operating systems2

History of Operating Systems

  • Multiprogramming Systems

    • allow several executing programs to be in memory concurrently

  • Timesharing system

    • permits many users to share the same CPU

    • the CPU switches between user sessions very quickly, giving each user a small slice of processor time

Evolution of operating systems

Evolution of Operating Systems

  • First-generation computers

    • Hardware: vacuumtubes and relays

    • Humanoperators

  • Second-generation Computers

    • Hardware: transistors

    • Batchprocessing was introduced as a means to keep the CPU busy

    • Monitors helped with the processing

    • spooling

Evolution of operating systems1

Evolution of Operating Systems

  • Third-generation computers

    • Hardware: integratedcircuits

    • timesharing

  • Fourth-generation Computers

    • Hardware: VLSI

    • Today’smulti-task,multi-useroperatingsystems

Functions of an operating system

Functions of an Operating System?

provide a user interface

start the computer

manage programs

administer security

manage memory

control a network

monitor performance

provide file management and other utilities

establish an Internet connection

schedule jobs and configure devices

Start the computer

Start the Computer

  • What is booting?

  • Process of starting or restarting a computer

  • ColdbootTurning on computer that has been powered off

  • WarmbootRestarting computer that is powered on

Dual boot


  • Dual-Boot permits two or more operating systems to be installed on one computer

How does a personal computer boot up

How does a personal computer boot up?

Step 4. Results of POST are compared with data in CMOS chip

Step 1. Power supply sends signal to components in system unit

Step 5.BIOS looks for system files in floppy disk drive or CD/DVD drive, and then hard disk

Step 2. Processor accesses BIOS to start computer

Step 6.Kernel (core) of operating system loads into RAM

Step 3.BIOS runs tests, called the POST, to check components such as mouse, keyboard, and adapter cards

Step 7. Operating system loads configuration information and displays desktop on screen

User interface

User Interface

  • What is a user interface?

  • Controls how you enter data and instructions and how information displays on screen

menu-driven interface

command-line interface

Lecture 13 operating systems


  • Graphical User Interface

User interacts with menus and visual images such as icons and buttons

File system

File System

  • Hierarchical Directories

Windows file naming

Windows File naming

  • Four parts

    • Drive

    • Path

    • File name

    • File type (extension)

  • C:\Windows\System\WinTrust.hlp

Single user multitasking

Single User / Multitasking

  • Working on two or more programs that reside in memory at same time

  • Foreground contains program you are using

  • Background contains programs that are running but are not in use

Memory management

Memory Management

  • Optimizing use of random access memory (RAM)

  • With virtualmemory (VM), portion of hard disk is allocated to function as RAM

  • This process is called paging

  • When an OS spends much of its time paging, instead of executing application software, it is said to be thrashing

Scheduling job

Adjusts schedule based on job’s priority

Scheduling Job


Receiving data from input device

Sending information to output device

A job is operation the processor manages

Processing instructions

Transferring items between storage and memory



  • Sending print jobs to buffer instead of directly to printer

  • Print jobs line up in queue

  • Addresses the “slow-I/Ovsfast-CPU” problem

Device driver

With Plug and Play, operating system automatically configures new devices as you install them

Program that tells operating system how to communicate with device

Device Driver

Device Driver

Also called driver

Types of operating system

Types of Operating System

  • Stand-Alone Operating Systems

    • works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device

  • Network Operating Systems

    • designed specifically to support a network

  • Embedded Operating Systems

    • Found on most mobile computers, PDAs, and other small devices

Dos disk operating system

Developed in early 1980s for personal computers


Used command-line interface when first developed, later included menus


Hardly used today because it does not offer GUI


DOS (Disk Operating System)

Dos dirty operating system

DOS: Dirty Operating System

Tim Paterson



More windows

More Windows

And more windows

And More Windows

Coming soon windows vista longhorn

Coming soon: Windows Vista (Longhorn)

Windows family

Windows VersionYear Released

Windows 3.x1990

Windows NT 3.11993

Windows 951995

Windows NT Workstation 4.01996

Windows 981998

Windows Millennium Edition 2000

Windows 2000 Professional2000

Windows XP2001

Windows XP SP22004

Windows Family

Windows xp

Windows XP

  • Microsoft’s fastest, most reliable Windows operating system

  • Five editions: Home Edition, Professional Edition, Tablet PC Edition,Media Center Edition,and 64-bit Edition

Mac os x

Mac OS X

  • Available only for computers manufactured by Apple

  • Macintosh operating system has been model for most GUIs

Lecture 13 operating systems


  • Used by power users because of its flexibility and power

  • Most versions offer GUI

  • Both a stand-alone and a network operating system

Unix 1969

Unix: 1969

Ken Thompson

Dennis Ritchie

Father of C

Turing Award

Dennis a professional truck driver

Dennis:A Professional Truck Driver

Ken a chess player

Ken: A Chess Player

Belle: ACM chess tournament Championship in 80, 81, 82, 86

Bsd unix 1977

BSD Unix: 1977

'It's very simple – you read the protocol and write the code.'"

  • BSD Unix

  • vi


  • Co-founder of Sun

  • Sparc Microprocessor

  • NFS(Network File System)



  • Popular, free, multitasking UNIX-type operating system

  • Open-source software

    code is available to public

  • Both a stand-alone and a network operating system

Gnu linux 1991

GNU & Linux (1991)

Richard Stallman

Linus Torvalds



Mac os

Mac OS

Network os


Designed for client/server networks

UNIX / Linux

Multi-purposeoperating system

Windows Server 2003

Upgrade to Windows 2000 Server

  • Solaris

  • Version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems

  • Specifically for e-commerce applications

Network OS

Embedded os

Embedded OS

  • What are two operating systems for PDAs?

  • Windows Mobile forPocket PC

  • Palm OSfor Palm, Visor, and CLIE

Symbian os

Symbian OS

  • Open-source, multitasking operating system designed for smart phones

  • Make telephone calls, save appointments, browse Web, send and receive e-mail and faxes, and more

Utility program

Utility Program

  • System software that performs maintenance-type tasks

    • Also called utility

Windows explorer

Windows Explorer

File Manager

System information

System Information

Windows registry

Windows Registry

  • A central record of all the settings and information relating to Windows and the software and hardware you have installed on your computer

  • Use Regedit to change it

Registry editor

Registry Editor



  • Software Basics

  • What is an Operating System

  • History of Operating Systems

  • Booting the Computer

  • Functions of Operating Systems

  • Types of Operating Systems

  • Utility Programs in Windows XP

The pdf slides and glossary are here

The pdf slides and glossary are here:

  • http://www.uic.edu.hk/~davetowey/teaching/CS/it1010/lectures/13.Operating.Systems.pdf http://www.uic.edu.hk/~davetowey/teaching/CS/it1010/lectures/2x2_13.Operating.Systems.pdf http://www.uic.edu.hk/~davetowey/teaching/CS/it1010/lectures/13.Glossary.pdf

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